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How to Remember DNA and RNA Nucleotides and their Structure



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I thought I'd do a video about DNA and

RNA nucleotide structure and mnemonics

so here are the structures of the bases

or the nucleotides rather for DNA the

nucleotides are deoxy guanylate d

accidental eight deoxys sites and

delayed and deoxy Klieman delayed so

there's different names for different

parts of these structures the nucleoside

what it's called is this part in pink

here so that's without the phosphate a

nucleotide is when it has one phosphate

or more on this five prime position so

the way it's numbered one prime two

prime three prime four prime five prime

the carbons are numbered

the reason they have prime and the name

is because if you you'd say without the

prime it's referring to the positions in

the ring of the base up here so this is

the base this is the sugar a nucleoside

is made up of a base in ER sugar a

nucleotide is made up of a base of sugar

and a phosphate in DNA the sugar is

deoxyribose in RNA we'll see that it's

ribose so in DNA it's missing an oxygen

here on the two prime position

professional biologists even will

sometimes use the word nucleoside or

nucleotide or base interchangeably which

can get confusing and if you hear that

and a professional biologists talk hear

the music wrong you can laugh at them

and think that you're smarter than they

are depending on the context people mix

these up and it's actually not a big

deal

here are the nucleotides for RNA and

you'll see the difference here in the

bases is there is a uracil instead of

the thiamine so the only difference here

between fiema and uracil is this methyl

group here so the things that do the

base pairing the nitrogen and the oxygen

that do the base pairing are exactly the

same the only difference is a methyl

group the difference in the sugar ribose

instead of deoxyribose is that there's

this oxygen here and that means that the

RNA is actually more reactive hydroxyl

group can react with things much more

easily than just the

saturated carbon and you'll notice here

some of these bases are called purines

these ones with the double ring

structures that's called the purine and

then the ones with the single ring

structure that's called the perimeter so

the way that I remember the DNA bases is

with this mnemonic gackt so I order them

GAC T lots of different people order

them in different ways just whatever is

easiest for you to remember but I like

gackt because I can pronounce it and the

best way I found to memorize anything is

just to associate it with something

goofy

gackt sounds kind of goofy and so it's

something I can remember another

convenient thing about saying gackt is

that these first two are the purines and

the second two are the primitives and

the first purine in the sequence G base

pairs with the first perimeter just like

this so the G will base part of the C

and the a will base paired to the T and

this just shows that there's three

hydrogen bonds between the G and the C

and there's two between the a and the T

and then if you want to remember that

the purines come first if you need some

way to remember this gets kind of

complicated maybe you won't even be able

to remember this but the way I remember

it that the U comes before the Y and the

alphabet so G a comes before C T in the

sequence and purine comes before

perimeter in the alphabet to remember

the RNA bases I just changed that same

keep the same order and then change that

the T to the U and so I get gaku which

is also goofy and easy to remember the

same thing God goes for the base pairing

the u base pairs to the a and again the

purines are in front and the perimeters

are afterwards also to remember that the

single ring structure is a permitting

and the double ring structure is

appearing but what I do is I notice that

perimeter Y looks like the base of a

pyramid looks like the base of a convex

hexagonal pyramid to be exact this is

not really looking like what we think of

when we think of a pyramid even though

it is technically a pyramid it's a

concave pyramid so because

GC bonds have three hydrogen bonds

they're actually stronger than at atra

you bonds so here we can see that

diamond and uracil actually have an

extra oxygen here that doesn't

participate in hydrogen bonding but

hydrogen bonding occurs when there's so

there's a partial negative charge on

these oxygens and then a partial

positive charge on these hydrogen's

attached to the nitrogen so because the

nitrogen is pulling the electrons away

from the hydrogen and you'll notice that

this methyl group does not participate

in the hydrogen bonding which is why

when you remove it and you get uracil it

hydrogen bonds the exact same way okay

that's all thanks hope it was helpful