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How to number carbon atoms



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hello and welcome to Nikolai's genetics

lessons and the first question is

numbers the carbon atoms in the ring

from the rebels below and as you see we

basically accept this carbon do not see

any other carbons but actually it is

very easy to name them I would use

another example for example in organic

chemistry

we may have a structure like this those

carbons are not shown here but we should

understand it one carbon atom is here

another is here another is here here

here and here so and every carbon has of

course not

two bonds but for so we are missing for

example here three bonds and we should

have here hydrogen's so hydrogen's also

not shown here and now as this year all

the carbons would have four bonds so

hydrogen here hydrogen here and hydrogen

here and here and here we should have

three hydrogen's so usually we do not

show all this information shown here

with white color because for us just

this broken line would be enough to

count number of carbons and because we

have six carbons here so this molecule

would be hexane so let's count number of

carbons in our ribose and here would be

our first carbon so carbon number one

here we would have second carbon carbon

number two here we are going to have

suit carbon carbon number three fourth

carbon is here and fifth carbon is going

to be here

so ribose in other words we also can

call this pintos because we have five

carbons here so pintos and here's the

formula of the leaner form of the

molecule which is C 5 H 10 or 5 so the

second question what is repose cold when

the wash group at the position 2 is

replaced with just hydrogen so this is

second position and if instead of a

large group here we would have only

hydrogen we would call this deoxyribose

so D boxy and D stands for the missing

and oxy a means oxygen so we miss one

oxygen in this ribose and sometimes we

can miss on the short carbon also we can

miss oxygen so in this case we would

call this D deoxyribose

the first method to sequence DNA was

dideoxya method when two oxygens was

missing and in this case that means that

next sugar wouldn't be able to connect

to this short position of the carbon so

carbon number five would connect to

carbon number three of the previous

sugar so in the double stranded DNA we

have basically three elements one would

be nitrogenous base which can be a

cytosine guanine thymine or edenian we

have a sugar which is ribose in the case

of the double-stranded DNA we would have

here deoxyribose

and distance for the deoxyribose and two

sugars would be connected by phosphor

groups by two phosphodiester bond in so

once again sugar as it has both wash

groups we call ribose and ribonucleic

acid have this type of sugar and DNA

would have deoxyribose so would miss

this oxygen at the carbon too so type of

ribose that means oxygen at the carbon

number two so the name of the sugar

would be dioxide ribose and this is

going to be an answer for the second

question and this is all for today thank

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