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for this next nomenclature video we're

going to be speaking about oxides

hydroxides and hydrides and these

chemical types are classified basically

by the type of onion they're adding to

the mix so the captain is just like in

the video hallow insults which I urge

you to watch so that you can understand

the naming stuff

the captain is always going to be a

metal and remember we have metals that

only have one valence or we have metals

that have two or more valence ha's okay

so in this case the cap demonsaw was

going to be metallic that's how we

recognize these and the anion depending

on the family is going to be oxygen

which is invariably - - and it's not in

its charge we're gonna have hydroxide

which is invariably - one in his charge

and we have hydrogen which is always

going to be negative one in this charge

when it's acting as an anion right so

when we write the chemical symbols we're

going to get o - two Oh H that may need

parentheses sometimes depending on what

you're combining with and finding a

hydrogen which is always minus one and

remember metals with one valence notable

exceptions from the transition metals

are silver in sync with plus two and

plus one aluminum which is a

representative metal so that's not

really an exception but our typical ones

which is sodium magnesium plus two

calcium what else potassium and with

multiple valances the usual suspects

copper plus 1 plus 2r n plus 2 plus 3

lead plus 2 plus 4 and remember these

charges and everything I'm not making it

up you can find it in a periodic table

or you can find it in an oxidation chart

so that you can make the different

combinations now once again if I have a

metal and an oxygen ion a neon I'm going

to form an oxide

if I have a metal as a cation and a

hydroxide as the onion I'm gonna get a

hydroxide and if I have a metal and

hydrogen atom as an onion I'm going to

get a hydride naming style is going to

be exactly the same so I'm going to

separate it for you a little bit right

here with different colors if we only

have metals with one valence the naming

style is very simple we just say name of

the metal and depending on the type of

cap down plus the word oxide and I put

it between quotation marks because it's

literally you have to write oxide

depending on the captain is going to be

hydroxide or if the cation is of the

anion is hydrogen we're gonna get the

word hydride okay so that's for metals

with one valence concrete examples of

this let's do a little mixture and let's

do some with sodium sodium is na plus

and as I remember telling you oxygen is

minus 200 H is minus 1 and hydrogen is

minus 1 so once we combine all of these

what are we going to get we're going to

get na 2 O 1 we don't do the 1 so we

just write na 2 O then we get na plus 1

o h- when we do the crisscross we get

once so we don't even write them NaOH

and last but not least sodium plus 1

hydrogen minus 1 when we do the

crisscross what are we gonna get sodium

hydride and again what is the name of

our metal only one valence so name of

metal plus the word sodium oxide for

this one the onion is hydroxide so we

get sodium hydroxide and last but not

least sodium and since my engine is

hydrogen the word is

hydride okay so again this is for metals

with only one valence such as the case

of sodium once again and if not again I

invite you to watch the highlights all

video which goes very deep into this

topic again we're just changing the name

of the anion when we have metals with

two or more valence a--'s we use we add

something additional because remember we

have two types of names so for the

modern name or the stock system modern

or stock name we're going to use the

formula for the nomenclature is going to

be metal named Roman numeral which

indicates the valence of the metal plus

the word oxide if we combine it with

oxygen plus a word hydroxide if we

combine it with a hydroxide ion

hydroxide ion or with the word hydride

if that onion was hydrogen so this is

for modern or Stark's name system and

when we speak about classic nomenclature

classic nomenclature nomenclature the

traitor and faster we use the metal name

the Latin metal name with it ending this

is two options pick ending or ascending

this one for the lower valence and this

one for the higher valence and then

after we add this we don't need a Roman

numeral and we add the word oxide

hydroxide or hydride in its ultimate

form if we use hydrogen as the onion

let's do some specific examples of this

again we have something such as copper

copper can be +1 copper can be +2 and

then we mix it with all these different

types of annuals that we have here OAH

or hydrogen and we're gonna get

different formulas how many different

compounds we can get 6 compounds from

this mixture so the first compound that

we get is 1 and 2 see you - oh and if we

do - and to see you oh we can also do

see you Oh H or here when we do the

interchange see you Oh H and parenthesis

- and finally see you H or see you H -

both of these compounds again have the

same naming the same naming style but we

use the valence for the different to

separate which is which so for example

this guy up here is going to be copper

which is my middle name since we use the

1 valence the Roman numeral has to be

Roman numeral 1 and since this with

oxygen we use a word oxide this compound

which we also use copper 1 is going to

be copper hydroxide and last but not

least copper 1 hydride the ones on the

bottom where we use a positive 2 valence

are gonna be same thing copper as the

middle name Roman numeral 2 for the

valence oxide when we combine it with

oxygen hydroxide when we combined it

with hydroxide or hydride when we

combined it with hydrogen and that's for

the modern name in this case again

copper has two valence is plus 1 and

plus 2 the lower valence and the higher

valence so in this case these compounds

can also be named user in their classic

nomenclature but we're gonna substitute

copper 1 for the word cuprous because

copper and Latin is Cooperman so we

substitute the US ending and this

becomes cobras and copper 2

is going to become cupric because it's a

higher valence so we get instead of

saying copper one we say copper oxide

copper one oxide we are going to say

cuprous oxide or cupric oxide especially

helpful in the lab because many

compounds still use this old old-style

nomenclature and then again copper one

is substituted by Cupra so copper one

oxide Cooper's oxide cupric oxide or we

get cuprous hydroxide when we combine it

with hydroxide or cuprous hydride or in

its defect kubrick hydroxide which is

this one cupric hydride which is that

last one and that's basically the naming

software these families all you have to

do is identify what we're talking about

if we're dealing with oxygen it's gonna

be oxides if you're dealing with

hydroxide as the onion we're talking

about hydroxides and if we're dealing

with hydrogen we're talking about