HOW TO ANALYZE PEOPLE ON SIGHT - FULL AudioBook - Human Analysis, Psychology, Body Language

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Through the Science of Human Analysis

The Five Human Types



Printed and Bound By The Roycrofters at Their Shops

In East Aurora N. Y.

Copyright, 1921 By Elsie Lincoln Benedict and Ralph Paine


All rights reserved


¶ To the following men and women we wish to express our appreciation for

their share in the production of this book:

_To_ DUREN J. H. WARD, PH. D., formerly of the Anthropology Department

of Harvard University, who, as the discoverer of the fourth human type,

has added immeasurably to the world's knowledge of human science.

_To_ RAYMOND H. LUFKIN, of Boston, who made the illustrations for this

volume scientifically accurate.

_To_ THE ROYCROFTERS, of East Aurora, whose artistic workmanship made it

into a thing of beauty.

_And last but not least,_

_To_ SARAH H. YOUNG, of San Francisco, our Business Manager, whose

efficiency correlated all these and placed the finished product in the

hands of our students.


_New York City, June, 1921_







"_The Enjoyer_"


"_The Thriller_"


"_The Worker_"


"_The Stayer_"


"_The Thinker_"




What Leading Newspapers Say About Elsie Lincoln Benedict and Her Work

"Over fifty thousand people heard Elsie Lincoln Benedict at the City

Auditorium during her six weeks lecture engagement in Milwaukee."--

_Milwaukee Leader, April 2, 1921._

"Elsie Lincoln Benedict has a brilliant record. She is like a fresh

breath of Colorado ozone. Her ideas are as stimulating as the

health-giving breezes of the Rockies."--_New York Evening Mail, April

16, 1914._

"Several hundred people were turned away from the Masonic Temple last

night where Elsie Lincoln Benedict, famous human analyst, spoke on 'How

to Analyze People on Sight.' Asked how she could draw and hold a crowd

of 3,000 for a lecture, she said: 'Because I talk on the one subject on

earth in which every individual is most interested--himself.'"--_Seattle Times, June 2, 1920._

"Elsie Lincoln Benedict is a woman who has studied deeply under genuine

scientists and is demonstrating to thousands at the Auditorium each

evening that she knows the connection between an individual's external

characteristics and his inner traits."--_Minneapolis News, November 7,


"Elsie Lincoln Benedict is known nationally, having conducted lecture

courses in many of the large Eastern cities. Her work is based upon the

practical methods of modern science as worked out in the world's leading

laboratories where exhaustive tests are applied to determine individual

types, talents, vocational bents and possibilities."--_San Francisco

Bulletin, January 25, 1919._

It's not how much you

know but what you can

DO that counts

Human Analysis--The X-Ray

_Modern science has proved that the fundamental traits of every

individual are indelibly stamped in the shape of his body, head, face

and hands--an X-ray by which you can read the characteristics of any

person on sight._

The most essential thing in the world to any individual is to understand

_himself_. The next is to understand the other fellow. For life is

largely a problem of running your own car as it was built to be run,

plus getting along with the other drivers on the highway.

From this book you are going to learn which type of car you are and the

main reasons why you have not been getting the maximum of service out of


Also you are going to learn the makes of other human cars, and how to

get the maximum of co-operation out of them. This co-operation is vital

to happiness and success. We come in contact with our fellowman in all

the activities of our lives and what we get out of life depends, to an

astounding degree, on our relations with him.

Reaction to Environment

¶ The greatest problem facing any organism is successful reaction to its

environment. Environment, speaking scientifically, is the sum total of

your experiences. In plain United States, this means fitting

vocationally, socially and maritally into the place where you are.

If you don't fit you must move or change your environment to fit _you_.

If you can't change the environment and you won't move you will become a

failure, just as tropical plants fail when transplanted to the Nevada


Learn From the Sagebrush

¶ But there is something that grows and keeps on growing in the Nevada

desert--the sagebrush. It couldn't move away and it couldn't change its

waterless environment, so it did what you and I must do if we expect to

succeed. It adapted itself to its environment, and there it stands, each

little stalwart shrub a reminder of what even a plant can do when it


Moving Won't Help Much

¶ Human life faces the same alternatives that confront all other forms

of life--of adapting itself to the conditions under which it must live

or becoming extinct. You have an advantage over the sagebrush in that

you can move from your city or state or country to another, but after

all that is not much of an advantage. For though you may improve your

situation slightly you will still find that in any civilized country the

main elements of your problem are the same.

Understand Yourself and Others

¶ So long as you live in a civilized or thickly populated community you

will still need to understand your own nature and the natures of other

people. No matter what you desire of life, other people's aims,

ambitions and activities constitute vital obstructions along your

pathway. You will never get far without the co-operation, confidence and

comradeship of other men and women.

Primitive Problems

¶ It was not always so. And its recentness in human history may account

for some of our blindness to this great fact.

In primitive times people saw each other rarely and had much less to do

with each other. The human element was then not the chief problem. Their

environmental problems had to do with such things as the elements,

violent storms, extremes of heat and cold, darkness, the ever-present

menace of wild beasts whose flesh was their food, yet who would eat them

first unless they were quick in brain and body.

Civilization's Changes

¶ But all that is changed. Man has subjugated all other creatures and

now walks the earth its supreme sovereign. He has discovered and

invented and builded until now we live in skyscrapers, talk around the

world without wires and by pressing a button turn darkness into


Causes of Failure

¶ Yet with all our knowledge of the outside world ninety-nine lives out

of every hundred are comparative failures.

¶ The reason is plain to every scientific investigator. We have failed

to study ourselves in relation to the great environmental problem of

today. The stage-setting has been changed but not the play. The game is

the same old game--you must adjust and adapt yourself to your

environment or it will destroy you.

Mastering His Own Environment

¶ The cities of today _look_ different from the jungles of our ancestors

and we imagine that because the brain of man overcame the old menaces no

new ones have arisen to take their place. We no longer fear

extermination from cold. We turn on the heat. We are not afraid of the

vast oceans which held our primitive forebears in thrall, but pass

swiftly, safely and luxuriously over their surfaces. And soon we shall

be breakfasting in New York and dining the same evening in San


Facing New Enemies

¶ But in building up this stupendous superstructure of modern

civilization man has brought into being a society so intricate and

complex that he now faces the new environmental problem of human


The Modern Spider's Web

¶ Today we depend for life's necessities almost wholly upon the

activities of others. The work of thousands of human hands and thousands

of human brains lies back of every meal you eat, every journey you take,

every book you read, every bed in which you sleep, every telephone

conversation, every telegram you receive, every garment you wear.

And this fellowman of ours has multiplied, since that dim distant dawn,

into almost two billion human beings, with at least one billion of them

after the very things you want, and not a tenth enough to go around!

Adapt or Die

¶ Who will win? Nature answers for you. She has said with awful and

inexorable finality that, whether you are a blade of grass on the Nevada

desert or a man in the streets of London, you can win only as you adapt

yourself to your environment. Today our environmental problem consists

largely of the other fellow. Only those who learn to adapt themselves to

their fellows can win great or lasting rewards.

Externals Indicate Internal Nature

¶ To do this it is necessary to better understand our neighbors--to

recognize that people differ from each other in their likes and

dislikes, traits, talents, tendencies and capabilities. The combination

of these makes each individual's nature. It is not difficult to

understand others for with each group of these traits there always goes

its corresponding physical makeup--the externals whereby the internal is

invariably indicated. This is true of every species on the globe and of

every subdivision within each species.

Significance of Size, Shape and Structure

¶ All dogs belong to the same species but there is a great difference

between the "nature" of a St. Bernard and that of a terrier, just as

there is a decided difference between the natures of different human

beings. But in both instances the actions, reactions and habits of each

can be accurately anticipated on sight by the shape, size and structure

of the two creatures.

Differences in Breed

¶ When a terrier comes into the room you instinctively draw away unless

you want to be jumped at and greeted effusively. But you make no such

movement to protect yourself from a St. Bernard because you read, on

sight, the different natures of these two from their external


¶ You know a rose, a violet, a sunflower and an orchid and what perfume

you are sure to find in each, by the same method. All are flowers and

all belong to the same species, just as all human beings belong to the

same species. But their respective size, shape and structure tell you in

advance and on sight what their respective characteristics are.

The same is true of all human beings. They differ in certain

fundamentals but always and invariably in accordance with their

differences in size, shape and structure.

The Instinct of Self-Preservation

¶ The reason for this is plain. Goaded by the instinct of

self-preservation, man, like all other living things, has made heroic

efforts to meet the demands of his environment. He has been more

successful than any other creature and is, as a result, the most complex

organism on the earth. But his most baffling complexities resolve

themselves into comparatively simple terms once it is recognized that

each internal change brought about by his environment brought with it

the corresponding external mechanism without which he could not have


Interrelation of Body and Brain

¶ So today we see man a highly evolved creature who not only acts but

thinks and feels. All these thoughts, feelings and emotions are


The body and the mind of man are so closely bound together that whatever

affects one affects the other. An instantaneous change of mind instantly

changes the muscles of the face. A violent thought instantly brings

violent bodily movements.

Movies and Face Muscles

¶ The moving picture industry--said to be the third largest in the

world--is based largely on this interrelation. This industry would

become extinct if something were to happen to sever the connection

between external expressions and the internal nature of men and women.

Tells Fundamentals

¶ How much do external characteristics tell about a man? They tell, with

amazing accuracy, all the basic, fundamental principal traits of his

nature. The size, shape and structure of a man's body tell more

important facts about his real self--what he thinks and what he

does--than the average mother ever knows about her own child.

Learning to Read

¶ If this sounds impossible, if the seeming incongruity, multiplicity

and heterogeneity of human qualities have baffled you, remember that

this is exactly how the print in all books and newspapers baffled you

before you learned to read.

Not long ago I was reading stories aloud to a three-year old. She wanted

to "see the pictures," and when told there were none had to be shown the


"What funny little marks!" she cried, pointing to the print. "How do you

get stories out of them?"

Printing looked to all of us at first just masses of meaningless little


But after a few days at school how things did begin to clear up! It

wasn't a jumble after all. There was something to it. It straightened

itself out until the funny little marks became significant. Each of them

had a meaning and the same meaning under all conditions. Through them

your whole outlook on life became deepened and broadened--all because

you learned the meaning of twenty-six little letters and their


Reading People

¶ Learning to read men and women is a more delightful process than

learning to read books, for every person you see is a true story, more

romantic and absorbing than any ever bound in covers.

Learning to read people is also a simpler process than learning to read

books because there are fewer letters in the human alphabet. Though man

seems to the untrained eye a mystifying mass of "funny little marks," he

is not now difficult to analyze.

Only a Few Feelings

¶ This is because there are after all but a few kinds of human feelings.

Some form of hunger, love, hate, fear, hope or ambition gives rise to

every human emotion and every human thought.

Thoughts Bring Actions

¶ Now our actions follow our thoughts. Every thought, however

transitory, causes muscular action, which leaves its trace in that part

of the physical organism which is most closely allied to it.

Physiology and Psychology Interwoven

¶ Look into the mirror the next time you are angry, happy, surprised,

tired or sorrowful and note the changes wrought by your emotions in your

facial muscles.

Constant repetition of the same kinds of thoughts or emotions finally

makes permanent changes in that part of the body which is

physiologically related to these mental processes.

The Evolution of the Jaw

¶ The jaw is a good illustration of this alliance between the mind and

the body. Its muscles and bones are so closely allied to the pugnacity

instinct center in the brain that the slightest thought of combat causes

the jaw muscles to stiffen. Let the thought of any actual physical

encounter go through your mind and your jaw bone will automatically move

upward and outward.

After a lifetime of combat, whether by fists or words, the jaw sets

permanently a little more upward and outward--a little more like that of

the bulldog. It keeps to this combative mold, "because," says Mother

Nature, the great efficiency expert, "if you are going to call on me

constantly to stiffen that jaw I'll fix it so it will stay that way and

save myself the trouble."

Inheritance of Acquired Traits

¶ Thus the more combative jaw, having become permanent in the man's

organism, can be passed on to his children.

¶ Right here comes a most interesting law and one that has made possible

the science of Human Analysis:

Law of Size

¶ _The larger any part or organ the better its equipment for carrying

out the work of that organ and the more does it tend to express itself._

Nature IS an efficiency expert and doesn't give you an oversupply of

anything without demanding that you use it.

Jaws Becoming Smaller

¶ Our ancestors developed massive jaws as a result of constant combat.

As fast as civilization decreased the necessity for combat Nature

decreased the size of the average human jaw.

Meaning of the Big Jaw

¶ But wherever you see a large protruding jaw you see an individual

"armed and engined," as Kipling says, for some kind of fighting. The

large jaw always goes with a combative nature, whether it is found on a

man or a woman, a child, a pugilist or a minister.

Exhibit A--The Irishman

¶ The large jaw, therefore, is seen to be both a result and a cause of

certain things. As the inheritance of a fighting ancestor it is the

result of millions of years of fighting in prehistoric times, and, like

any other over-developed part or organ, it has an intense urge to

express itself. This inherent urge is what makes the owner of that jaw

"fight at the drop of the hat," and often have "a chip on his shoulder."

Natural Selection

¶ Thus, because every external characteristic is the result of natural

laws, and chiefly of natural selection, the vital traits of any creature

can be read from his externals. Every student of biology, anatomy,

anthropology, ethnology or psychology is familiar with these facts.

Built to Fit

¶ Man's organism has developed, altered, improved and evolved "down

through the slow revolving years" with one instinctive aim--successful

reaction to its environment. Every part has been laboriously constructed

to that sole end. Because of this its functions are marked as clearly

upon it as those of a grain elevator, a steamship or a piano.

Survival of the Fittest

¶ Nature has no accidents, she wastes no material and everything has a

purpose. If you put up a good fight to live she will usually come to

your rescue and give you enough of whatever is needed to tide you over.

If you don't, she says you are not fit to people the earth and lets you

go without a pang. Thus she weeds out all but the strong--and evolution

marches on.

Causes of Racial Characteristics

¶ This inherent potentiality for altering the organism to meet the

demands of the environment is especially noticeable in races and is the

reason for most racial differences.

Differences in environment--climate, altitude and topography

necessitated most of these physical differentiations which today enable

us to know at a glance whether a man belongs to the white race, the

yellow race, or the black race. The results of these differentiations

and modifications will be told in the various chapters of this book.

Types Earlier than Races

¶ The student of Human Analysis reads the disposition and nature of

every individual with ease regardless of whether that individual be an

American, a Frenchman, a Kaffir or a Chinaman, because Human Analysis

explains those fundamental traits which run through every race, color

and nationality, according to the externals which always go with those


Five Biological Types

¶ _Human Analysis differs from every other system of character analysis

in that it classifies man, for the first time, into five types according

to his biological evolution._

¶ It deals with man in the light of the most recent scientific

discoveries. It estimates each individual according to his "human"

qualities rather than his "character" or so-called "moral" qualities. In

other words, it takes his measure as a human being and determines from

his externals his chances for success in the world of today.

These Rules Work

¶ Every rule in this book is based on scientific data, has been proved

to be accurate by investigations and surveys of all kinds of people in

all parts of the world.

These rules do not work merely _part_ of the time. They work _all_ the

time, under all conditions and apply to every individual of every race,

every color, every country, every community and every family.

Through this latest human science you can learn to read people as easily

as you read books--if you will take the little time and pains to learn

the rules which compose your working alphabet.

Do What We Want to Do

¶ It is easy to know what an individual will do under most circumstances

because every human being does what he _wants_ to do in the _way_ he

prefers to do it _most_ of the time. If you doubt it try this test:

bring to mind any intimate friends, or even that husband or wife, and

note how few changes they have made in their way of doing things in

twenty years!

Preferences Inborn

¶ Every human being is born with preferences and predilections which

manifest themselves from earliest childhood to death. These inborn

tendencies are never obliterated and seldom controlled to any great

extent, and then only by individuals who have learned the power of the

mind over the body. Inasmuch as this knowledge is possessed by only a

few, most of the people of the earth are blindly following the dictates

of their inborn leanings.

Follow Our Bents

¶ In other words, more than ninety-nine per cent of all the people you

know are following their natural bents in reacting to all their

experiences--from the most trivial incidents to the most far-reaching


"Took It" From Grandmother

¶ The individual is seldom conscious of these habitual acts of his, much

less of where he got them. The nearest he comes is to say he "got it

from his father" or "she takes it from grandmother." But where did

grandmother get it?

Man No Mystery

¶ Science has taken the trouble to investigate and today we know not only

where grandmother got it but what she did with it. She got it along with

her size, shape and structure--in other words, from her type--and she did

just what you and everybody else does with his type-characteristics. She

acted in accordance with her type just as a canary sings like a canary

instead of talking like a parrot, and just as a rose gives off rose

perfume instead of violet.

This law holds throughout every species and explains man--who likes to

think himself a deep mystery--as it explains every other creature.

The Hold of Habit

¶ Look around you in shop, office, field or home and you will find that

the quick, alert, impulsive man is acting quickly, alertly and

impulsively most of the time. Nothing less than a calamity slows him

down and then only temporarily; while the slow, patient, mild and

passive individual is acting slowly, patiently, mildly and passively in

spite of all goads. Some overwhelming passion or crisis may speed him up

momentarily but as soon as it fades he reverts to his old slow habits.

Significance of Fat, Bone and Muscle

¶ Human Analysis is the new science which shows you how to recognize the

slow man, the quick man, the stubborn man, the yielding man, the leader,

the learner, and all other basic kinds of men on sight from the shape,

size and structure of their bodies.

Certain bodily shapes indicate predispositions to fatness, leanness,

boniness, muscularity and nervousness, and this predisposition is so

much a part of the warp and woof of the individual that he can not

disguise it. The urge given him by this inborn mechanism is so strong as

to be practically irresistible. Every experience of his life calls

forth some kind of reaction and invariably the reaction will be

similar, in every vital respect, to the reactions of other people who

have bodies of the same general size, shape and structure as his own.

Succeed at What We Like

¶ No person achieves success or happiness when compelled to do what he

naturally dislikes to do. Since these likes and dislikes stay with him

to the grave, one of the biggest modern problems is that of helping men

and women to discover and to capitalize their inborn traits.

Enthusiasm and Self-Expression

¶ Every individual does best those things which permit him to act in

accordance with his natural bents. This explains why we like best those

things we do best. It takes real enthusiasm to make a success of any

undertaking for nothing less than enthusiasm can turn on a full current.

We struggle from the cradle to the grave for self-expression and

everything that pushes us in a direction opposed to our natural

tendencies is done half-heartedly, inefficiently and disgruntledly.

These are the steps that lead straight to failure. Yet failure can be

avoided and success approximated by every normal person if he will take

the same precaution with his own machinery that he takes with his


Learn to Drive Your Car

¶ If you were presented with a car by your ancestors--which is

precisely what happened to you at birth--you would not let an hour go by

without finding out what make or type of car it was. Before a week

elapsed you would have taken the time, labor and interest to learn how

to run it,--not merely any old way, but the _best_ way for that

particular make of car.

Five Makes of Human Cars

¶ There are five makes or types of human cars, differing as definitely

in size, shape and structure as Fords differ from Pierce-Arrows. Each

human type differs as widely in its capacities, possibilities and

aptitudes as a Ford differs from a Pierce-Arrow. Like the Ford or Pierce

the externals indicate these functional differences with unfailing

accuracy. Furthermore just as a Ford never changes into a Pierce nor a

Pierce into a Ford, a human being never changes his type. He may modify

it, train it, polish it or control it somewhat, but he will never change


Can Not be Deceived

¶ The student of Human Analysis cannot be deceived as to the type of any

individual any more than you can be deceived about the make of a car.

One may "doll up" a Ford to his heart's content--remove the hood and top

and put on custom-made substitutes--it is still a Ford, always will be a

Ford and you can always detect that it is a Ford. It will do valuable,

necessary things but only those things it was designed to do and in its

own particular manner; nor could a Pierce act like a Ford.

Are You a Ford or a Pierce?

¶ So it is with human cars. Maybe you have been awed by the jewels and

clothes with which many human Fords disguise themselves. The chances are

that you have overlooked a dozen Pierces this week because their paint

was rusty. Perchance you are a Pierce yourself, drawing a Ford salary

because you don't know you are a high-powered machine capable of making

ten times the speed you have been making on your highway of life.

Superficialities Sway Us

¶ If so your mistake is only natural. The world classifies human beings

according to their superficialities. To the world a human motorcycle can

pass for a Rolls-Royce any day if sufficiently camouflaged with

diamonds, curls, French heels and plucked eyebrows.

Bicycles in Congress

¶ In the same manner many a bicycle in human form gets elected to

Congress because he plays his machinery for all it is worth and gets a

hundred per cent service out of it. Every such person learned early in

life what kind of car he was and capitalized its natural tendencies.

Don't Judge by Veneer

¶ Nothing is more unsafe than to attempt to judge the actual natures of

people by their clothes, houses, religious faith, political

affiliations, prejudices, dialect, etiquette or customs. These are only

the veneer laid on by upbringing, teachers, preachers, traditions and

other forces of suggestion, and it is a veneer so thin that trifles

scratch it off.

The Real Always There

¶ But the real individual is always there, filled with the tendencies of

his type, bending always toward them, constantly seeking opportunities

to run as he was built to run, forever striving toward self-expression.

It is this ever-active urge which causes him to revert, in the manifold

activities of everyday life, to the methods, manners and peculiarities

common to his type.

This means that unless he gets into an environment, a vocation and a

marriage which permits of his doing what he _wants_ to do he will be

miserable, inefficient, unsuccessful and sometimes criminal.

Causes of Crime

¶ That this is the true explanation of crime has been recognized for

many years by leading thinkers. Two prison wardens--Thomas Tynan of

Colorado and Thomas Mott Osborne of Sing Sing--effectively initiated

penal reforms based upon it.

Every crime, like every personal problem, arises from some kind of

situation wherein instinct is thwarted by outside influence.

¶ Human Analysis teaches you to recognize, on sight, the predominant

instincts of any individual--in brief, what that individual is inclined

to do under all the general situations of his life. You know what the

world tries to compel him to do. If the discrepancy between these two is

beyond the reach of his type he refuses to do what society demands.

This and this only is back of every human digression from indiscretion

to murder.

It is as vain to expect to eradicate these inborn trends and put others

in their places as to make a sewing machine out of an airplane or an oak

out of a pine. The most man can do for his neighbor is to understand and

inspire him. The most he can do for himself is to understand and

organize his inborn capacities.

Find Your Own Type

¶ The first problem of your happiness is to find out what type you are

yourself--which you will know after reading this book--and to build your

future accordingly.

Knowing and Helping Others

¶ The second is to learn how to analyze others to the end that your

relationships with them may be harmonious and mutually advantageous.

Take every individual according to the way he was born, accept him as

that kind of mechanism and deal with him in the manner befitting that

mechanism. In this way and this only will you be able to impress or to

help others.

In this way only will you be able to achieve real success. In this way

only will you be able to help your fellowman find the work, the

environment and the marriage wherein he can be happy and successful.

The Four C's

¶ To get the maximum of pleasure and knowledge out of this interesting

course there are four things to remember as _your_ part of the contract.


¶ Think of _what_ you are reading _while_ you are reading it.

Concentration is a very simple thing. The next C is


¶ Look at people carefully (but not starefully) when analyzing them.

Don't jump at conclusions. We humans have a great way of twisting facts

to fit our conclusion as soon as we have made one. But don't spend all

your time getting ready to decide and forget to decide at all, like the

man who was going to jump a ditch. He ran so far back to get a good

start each time that he never had the strength to jump when he got

there. Get a good start by observing carefully. Then


¶ Be sure you are right and then go ahead. Make a decision and make it

with the confidence that you are right. If you will determine now to

follow this rule it will compel you to follow the first two because, in

order to be sure you are right, to be certain you are not misjudging

anybody, you will read each rule concentratedly and observe each person

carefully beforehand.


¶ "Practice makes perfect." Take this for your motto if you would become

expert in analyzing people. It is one easily followed for you come in

contact with people everywhere--at home, amongst your business

associates, with your friends and on the street. Remember you can only

benefit from a thing as you use it. A car that you never took out of the

garage would be of no value to you. So get full value out of this course

by using it at all times.

These Rules Your Tools

¶ These rules are scientific. They are true and they are true always.

They are very valuable tools for the furtherance of your progress

through life.

An understanding of people is the greatest weapon you can possess.

Therefore these are the most precious tools you can own. But like every

tool in the world and all knowledge in the world, they must be used as

they were built to be used or you will get little service out of them.

You would not expect to run a car properly without paying the closest

attention to the rules for clutches, brakes, starters and gears.

Everything scientific is based not on guesses but laws. This course in

Analyzing People on Sight is as scientific as the automobile. It will

carry you far and do it easily if you will do your part. Your part

consists of learning the few simple rules laid down in this book and in

applying them in the everyday affairs of your life.

Fewer and Truer

¶ Many things which have been found to be true in almost every instance

could have been included in this course. But we prefer to make fewer

statements and have those of bedrock certainty. Therefore this course,

like all our courses, consists exclusively of those facts which have

been found to be true in every particular of people in normal health.


The Five Extremes

¶ This book deals with PURE or UNMIXED types only. When you understand

these, the significance of their several combinations as seen in

everyday life will be clear to you.

The Human Alphabet

¶ Just as you can not understand the meaning of a word until you know

the letters that go into the makeup of that word, you cannot analyze

people accurately until you get these five extreme types firmly in your

mind, for they are your alphabet.

Founded in Five Biological Systems

¶ Each PURE type is the result of the over-development of one of the

five biological systems possessed by all human beings--the nutritive,

circulatory, muscular, bony or nervous.

Therefore every individual exhibits to some degree the characteristics

of all the five types.

The Secret of Individuality

¶ But his PREDOMINANT traits and INDIVIDUALITY--the things that make him

the KIND of man he is--agree infallibly with whichever one of the five

systems PREDOMINATES in him.

Combinations Common in America

¶ The average American man or woman is a COMBINATION of some two of

these types with a third discernible in the background.

To Analyze People

¶ To understand human beings familiarize yourself first with the PURE or

UNMIXED types and then it will be easy and fascinating to spell out

their combinations and what they mean in the people all about you.

Postpone Combinations

¶ Until you have learned these pure types thoroughly it will be to your

advantage to forget that there is such a thing as combinations. After

you have these extreme types well in mind you will be ready to analyze


The Five Types

¶ Science has discovered that there are five types of human beings.

Discarding for a moment their technical names, they may be called the

fat people, the florid people, the muscular people, the bony people and

the mental people.

Each varies from the others in shape, size and structure and is

recognizable at a glance by his physique or build. This is because his

type is determined by the preponderance within his body of one of the

five great departments or biological systems--the nutritive, the

circulatory, the muscular, the bony or the nervous.

At Birth

¶ Every child is born with one of these systems more highly developed,

larger and better equipped than the others.

Type Never Disappears

¶ Throughout his life this system will express itself more, be more

intense and constant in its functioning than the others and no manner of

training, education, environment or experience, so long as he remains in

normal health, will alter the predominance of this system nor prevent

its dictating his likes, dislikes and most of his reactions.

Effect of Eating

¶ If you do not understand why the overaction of one bodily system

should influence a man's nature see if you can't recall more than one

occasion when a square meal made a decided difference in your

disposition within the space of thirty minutes.

If one good meal has the power to alter so completely our personalities

temporarily, is it then any wonder that constant overfeeding causes

everybody to love a fat man? For the fat man is habitually and

chronically in that beatific state which comes from over-eating.

[Illustration: 1 Alimentive the enjoyer]


The Alimentive Type

"The Enjoyer"

_Note: Bear in mind at the beginning of this and every other chapter,

that we are describing the extreme or unmixed type. Before leaving this

book you will understand combination types and should read people as

readily as you now read your newspaper._

Those individuals in whom the alimentive system is more highly developed

than any other are called Alimentives. The alimentive system consists of

the stomach, intestines, alimentary canal and every part of the

assimilative apparatus.

Physical Rotundity

¶ A general rotundity of outline characterizes this type. He is round in

every direction. Fat rolls away from his elbows, wrists, knees and

shoulders. (See Chart 1)

The Fat, Overweight Individual

¶ Soft flesh thickly padded over a small-boned body distinguishes the

pure Alimentive type. In men of this type the largest part of the body

is around the girth; in women it is around the hips. These always

indicate a large nutritive system in good working order. Fat is only

surplus tissue--the amount manufactured by the assimilative system over

and above the needs of the body.

Fat is more soft and spongy than bone or muscle and lends to its wearer

a softer structure and appearance.

Small Hands and Feet

¶ Because his bones are small the pure Alimentive has small feet and

small hands. How many times you have noted with surprise that the two

hundred pound woman had tiny feet! The inconvenience of "getting around"

which you have noticed in her is due to the fact that while she has more

weight to carry she has smaller than average feet with which to do it.

The Pure Alimentive Head

¶ A head comparatively small for the body is another characteristic of

the extreme Alimentive. The neck and lower part of the head are covered

with rolls of fat. This gives the head the effect of spreading outward

from the crown as it goes down to the neck, thus giving the neck a

short, disproportionately large appearance.

The Round-Faced Person

¶ A "full-moon" face with double or triple chins gives this man his

"baby face." (See Chart 2) Look carefully at any extremely fat person

and you will see that his features are inclined to the same immaturity

of form that characterizes his body.

Very few fat men have long noses. Nearly all fat men and women have not

only shorter, rounder noses but shorter upper lips, fuller mouths,

rounder eyes and more youthful expressions than other people--in short,

the features of childhood.

The entire physical makeup of this type is modeled upon the

circle--round hands with dimples where the knuckles are supposed to be;

round fingers, round feet, round waist, round limbs, sloping shoulders,

curving thighs, bulging calves, wrists and ankles.

[Illustration: 2 Typical Alimentive face]

Wherever you see curves predominating in the physical outlines of any

person, that person is largely of the Alimentive type and will always

exhibit alimentive traits.

The Man of Few Movements

¶ The Alimentive is a man of unhurried, undulating movements. The

difficulty in moving large bodies quickly necessitates a slowing down of

all his activities. These people are easeful in their actions, make as

few moves as possible and thereby lend an air of restfulness wherever

they go.

Because it is difficult to turn their heads, extremely fat people seldom

are aware of what goes on behind them.

The Fat Man's Walk

¶ Very fat people waddle when they walk, though few of them realize it.

They can not watch themselves go by and no one else has the heart to

impart bad news to this pleasant person.

Spilling Over Chairs

¶ The fat man spills over chairs and out of his clothes. Big arm chairs,

roomy divans and capacious automobiles are veritable dykes to these men.

Note the bee-line the fat person makes for the big leather chair when he

enters a room!

Clothes for Comfort

¶ The best that money can buy are the kinds of clothes purchased by the

Alimentive whenever he can afford them. And it often happens that he can

afford them, especially if the Cerebral system comes second in his

makeup. If he is in middle circumstances his clothes will be chosen

chiefly for comfort. Even the rich Alimentive "gets into something

loose" as soon as he is alone. Baggy trousers, creased sleeves, soft

collars and soft cuffs are seen most frequently on fat men.

Comfort is one of the very first aims of this type. To attain it he

often wears old shoes or gloves long past their time to save breaking in

a new pair.

Susceptible to Cold

¶ Cold weather affects this type. If you will look about you the first

cold day of autumn you will note that most of the overcoats are on the

plump men.

How the Fat Man Talks

¶ Never to take anything too seriously is an unconscious policy of fat

people. They show it plainly in their actions and speech. The very fat

man is seldom a brilliant conversationalist. He is often a "jollier"

and tells stories well, especially anecdotes and personal experiences.

Doesn't Tell His Troubles

¶ He seldom relates his troubles and often appears not to have any. He

avoids references to isms and ologies and gives a wide berth to all who

deal in them. Radical groups seldom number any extremely fat men among

their members, and when they do it is usually for some other purpose

than those mentioned in the by-laws.

The very fat man dislikes argument, avoids disagreeing with you and

sticks to the outer edges of serious questions in his social


The Fat Man "Lives to Eat"

¶ Rich food in large quantities is enjoyed by the average fat man three

times a day and three hundred and sixty-five days a year. Between meals

he usually manages to stow away a generous supply of candy, ice cream,

popcorn and fruit. We have interviewed countless popcorn and fruit

vendors on this subject and every one of them told us that the fat

people kept them in business.

Visits the Soda Fountain Often

¶ As for the ice cream business, take a look the next time you pass a

soda fountain and note the large percentage of fat people joyfully

scooping up mountains of sundaes, parfaits and banana splits. You will

find that of those who are sipping things through straws the thin folks

are negotiating lemonades and phosphates, while a creamy frappé is

rapidly disappearing from the fat man's glass.

The Deep Mystery

¶ "What do you suppose is making me so plump?" naively inquires the fat

man when it finally occurs to him--as it did to his friends long

before--that he is surely and speedily taking on flesh.

If you don't know the answer, look at the table of any fat person in any

restaurant, café or dining room. He is eating with as much enthusiasm as

if he had just been rescued from a forty-day fast, instead of having

only a few hours before looked an equally generous meal in the eye and

put it all under his belt. The next time you are at an American plan

hotel where meals are restricted to certain hours note how the fat

people are always the first ones into the dining room when the doors are


Fat-Making Foods

¶ Butter, olive oil, cream, pastry and starches are foods that increase

your weight just as fast as you eat them, if your assimilative system is

anything like it should be. Though he is the last man in the world who

ought to indulge in them the fat man likes these foods above all others

and when compelled to have a meal without them feels as though he hadn't

eaten at all.

Why They Don't Lose Weight

¶ We had a friend who decided to reduce. But in spite of the fact that

she lived on salads almost exclusively for a week she kept right on

gaining. We thought she had been surreptitiously treating herself to

lunches between meals until some one noticed the dressing with which she

drowned her lettuce: pure olive oil--a cupful at a sitting--"because,"

she said "I must have something tasty to camouflage the stuff."

An Experiment

¶ Once in California, where no city block is complete without its

cafeteria, we took a committee from one of our Human Analysis classes to

six of these big establishments one noontime. To illustrate to them the

authenticity of the facts we have stated above we prophesied what the

fat ones would select for their meals.

Without exception their trays came by heaped with pies, cake, cream,

starchy vegetables and meat, just as we predicted.

A Short Life But a Merry One

¶ According to the statistics of the United States Life Insurance

Companies fat people die younger than others. And the Insurance

Companies ought to know, for upon knowing instead of guessing what it is

that takes us off, depends the whole life insurance business. That they

consider the extremely fat man an unsafe risk after thirty years of age

is a well-known fact.

"I am interrupted every day by salesmen for everything on earth except

one. But the life insurance agents leave me alone!" laughed a very fat

young lawyer friend of ours the other morning--and he went on ordering

ham and eggs, waffles, potatoes and coffee!

That he is eating years off his life doesn't trouble the fat man,

however. He has such a good time doing it!

"I Should Worry," Says the Fat Man

¶ It was no accident that "Ish ka bibble" was invented by the Hebrew.

For this race has proportionately more fat people in it than any other

and fat people just naturally believe worry is useless. But the fat man

gets this philosophy from the same source that gives him most of his

other traits--his predominating system.

Digestion and Contentment

¶ The eating of delicious food is one of the most intense and poignant

pleasures of life. The digestion of food, when one possesses the

splendid machinery for it which characterizes the Alimentive, gives a

deep feeling of serenity and contentment.

Since the fat man is always just going to a big meal or in the process

of digesting one he does not give himself a chance to become ill

natured. His own and the world's troubles sit lightly upon him.

The Most Popular Type Socially

¶ "The life of the party" is the fat man or that pleasing, adaptable,

feminine creature, the fat woman. No matter what comes or goes they have

a good time and it is such an infectious one that others catch it from


Did you ever notice how things pick up when the fat ones appear? Every

hostess anticipates their arrival with pleasure and welcomes them with

relief. She knows that she can relax now, and sure enough, Fatty hasn't

his hat off till the atmosphere shows improvement. By the time Chubby

gets into the parlor and passes a few of her sunny remarks the wheels

are oiled for the evening and they don't run down till the last plump

guest has said good night.

¶ So it is no wonder that fat people spend almost every evening at a

party. They get so many more invitations than the rest of us!

Likes Complacent People

¶ People who take things as they find them are the ones the Alimentive

prefers for friends, not only because, like the rest of us, he likes his

own kind of folks, but because the other kind seem incongruous to him.

He takes the attitude that resistance is a waste of energy. He knows

other and easier ways of getting what he desires.

There are types who take a lively interest in those who are different

from them, but not the Alimentive. He prefers easy-going, hospitable,

complacent friends whose homes and hearts are always open and whose

minds run on the simple, personal things.

¶ The reason for this is obvious. All of us like the people, situations,

experiences and environments which bring out our natural tendencies,

which call into play those reflexes and reactions to which we tend


Chooses Food-Loving Friends

¶ "Let's have something to eat" is a phrase whose hospitality has broken

more ice and warmed more hearts than any other, unless perchance that

rapidly disappearing "let's have something to drink." The fat person

keeps at the head of his list those homey souls who set a good table and

excel in the art of third and fourth helpings.

Because he is a very adaptable sort of individual this type can

reconcile himself to the other kind whenever it serves his purpose. But

the tenderest spots in his heart are reserved for those who encourage

him in his favorite indoor sport.

When He Doesn't Like You

¶ A fat man seldom dislikes anybody very hard or for very long.

Really disliking anybody requires the expenditure of a good deal of

energy and hating people is the most strenuous work in the world. So

the Alimentive refuses to take even his dislikes to heart. He is a

consistent conserver of steam and this fact is one of the secrets of his


He applies this principle to everything in life. So he travels smoothly

through his dealings with others.

Holds Few Grudges

¶ "Forget it" is another phrase originated by the fat people. You will

hear them say it more often than any other type. And what is more, they

excel the rest of us in putting it into practice. The result is that

their nerves are usually in better working order. This type runs down

his batteries less frequently than any other.

Avoids the "Ologists"

¶ When he takes the trouble to think about it there are a few kinds of

people the Alimentive does not care for. The man who is bent on

discussing the problems of the universe, the highbrow who wants to

practise his new relativity lecture on him, the theorist who is given to

lengthy expatiations, and all advocates of new isms and ologies are

avoided by the pure Alimentive. He calls them faddists, fanatics and


When he sees a highbrow approaching, instead of having it out with him

as some of the other types would, he finds he has important business

somewhere else. Thus he preserves his temperature, something that in the

average fat man seldom goes far above normal.

No Theorist

¶ Theories are the bane of this type. He just naturally doesn't believe

in them. Scientific discoveries, unless they have to do with some new

means of adding to his personal comforts, are taboo. The next time this

one about "fat men dying young" is mentioned in his presence listen to

his jolly roar. The speed with which he disposes of it will be beautiful

to see!

"Say, I feel like a million dollars!" he will assure you if you read

this chapter to him. "And I'll bet the folks who wrote that book are a

pair of grouches who have forgotten what a square meal tastes like!"

Where the T-Bones Go

¶ When you catch a three-inch steak homeward bound you will usually find

it tucked under the arm of a well-rounded householder. When his salary

positively prohibits the comforts of parlor, bedroom and other parts of

the house the fat man will still see to it that the kitchen does not

lack for provender.

Describes His Food

¶ The fat person likes to regale you with alluring descriptions of what

he had for breakfast, what he has ordered for lunch and what he is

planning for dinner--and the rarebit he has on the program for after the


Eats His Way to the Grave

¶ Most of us are committing suicide by inches in one form or

another--and always in that form which is inherent in our type.

The Alimentive eats his way to the grave and has at least this much to

say for it: it is more delightful than the pet weaknesses by which the

other types hasten the final curtain.

Diseases He Is Most Susceptible To

¶ Diabetes is more common among this type than any other. Apoplexy comes

next, especially if the fat man is also a florid man with a fast heart

or an inclination to high blood pressure. A sudden breaking down of any

or several of the vital organs is also likely to occur to fat people

earlier than to others. It is the price they pay for their years of


¶ Overtaxed heart, kidneys and liver are inevitable results of too much


So the man you call "fat and husky" is fat but _not_ husky, according to

the statistics.

Fat Men and Influenza

¶ During the historic Spanish Influenza epidemic of 1918 more fat people

succumbed than all other types combined. This fact was a source of

surprise and much discussion on the part of newspapers, but not of the

scientists. The big question in treating this disease and its twin,

Pneumonia, is: will the heart hold out? Fat seriously handicaps the


The Fat Man's Ford Engine

¶ The human heart weighs less than a pound but it is the one organ in

all our machinery that never takes a rest. It is the engine of the human

car, and what a faithful little motor too--like the Ford engine which it

so much resembles. If you live to be forty it chugs away forty years,

and if you stay here ninety it stretches it to ninety, without an

instant of vacation.

But it must be treated with consideration and the first consideration is

not to overwork it. A Ford engine is large enough for a Ford car, for

Fords are light weight. As long as you do not weigh too much your engine

will carry you up the hills and down the dales of life with good old

Ford efficiency and at a pretty good gait.

Making a Truck out of Your Ford

¶ But when you take on fat you are doing to your engine what a Ford

driver would be doing to his if he loaded his car with brick or scrap


A Ford owner who intended to transport bricks the rest of his life could

get a big-cylinder engine and substitute it for the original but you

can't do that. This little four-cylinder affair is the only one you will

ever have and no amount of money, position or affection can buy you a

new one if you mistreat it. Like the Ford engine, it will stand for a

good many pounds of excess baggage and still do good work. But if you

load on too much and keep it there the day will come when its cylinders

begin to skip.

¶ You may take it to the service station and pay the doctors to grind

the valves, fix your carbureter and put in some new spark plugs. These

may work pretty well as long as you are traveling the paved highway of

Perfect Health; you may keep up with the procession without noticing

anything particularly wrong.

But come to the hill of Pneumonia or Diabetes and you are very likely

not to make the grade.

Don't "Kill Your Engine"

¶ The records in America show that thousands of men and women literally

"kill their engines" every year when they might have lived many years


How Each Finds Happiness

¶ We live for happiness and each type finds its greatest happiness in

following those innate urges determined by the most highly-developed

system in its makeup.

The Alimentive's disposition, nature, character and personality are

built by and around his alimentary system. He is happiest when

gratifying it and whenever he thwarts it he is miserable, just as the

rest of us are when we thwart our predominant system.

The World Needs Him

¶ This type has so many traits needed by the world, however, and has

such extreme capacity for enjoying life that the race, not to mention

himself, would profit greatly by his denying himself excessive amounts

of food.

Enjoyment the Keynote of This Type

¶ The good things of life--rich, abundant food and everything that

serves the personal appetites--are the cravings of this type.

He purchases and uses more of the limousines, yachts and chefs than any

other three types combined, and gets more for his money out of them than

others do. The keynote of his nature is personal enjoyment. His senses

of touch and taste are also especially acute.

The Fat Man Loves Comfort

¶ You can tell a great deal about a man's type by noting for what

classes of things he spends most of his extra money.

The Alimentive may have no fire insurance, no Liberty bonds, no real

estate but he will have all the modern comforts he can possibly afford.

Most of the world's millionaires are fat and Human Analysis explains

why. We make few efforts in life save to satisfy our most urgent

demands, desires, and ambitions. Each human type differs in its

cravings from each of the others and takes the respective means

necessary to gratify these cravings.

The Alimentive craves those luxuries, comforts and conveniences which

only money can procure for him.

The Fat Millionaire

¶ When the Alimentive is a man of brains he uses his brains to get

money. No fat person enjoys work but the greater his brain capacity the

more will he forego leisure to make money.

When the Fat Man is in Average Circumstances

¶ Any man's money-making ambitions depend largely on whether money is

essential to the satisfaction of his predominating instincts.

If he is fat and of average brain capacity he will overcome his physical

inertia to the point of securing for himself and his family most of the

comforts of modern life.

The average-brained fat man composes a large percentage of our

population and the above accounts for his deserved reputation as a

generous husband and father.

The Fat Man a Good Provider

¶ The fat man will give his last cent to his wife and children for the

things they desire but he is not inclined as much as some other types to

hearken to the woes of the world at large. The fat man is essentially a

family man, a home man, a respectable, cottage-owning, tax-paying,

peaceable citizen.

Not a Reformer

¶ He inclines to the belief that other families, other communities,

other classes and other countries should work out their own salvation

and he leaves them to do it. In all charitable, philanthropic and

community "drives" he gives freely but is not lavish nor sentimental

about it. It is often a "business proposition" with him.

When the Fat Man is Poor

¶ Love of ease is the fat man's worst enemy. His inherent contentment,

accentuated by the inconvenience of moving about easily or quickly,

constantly tempts him to let things slide. When he lacks the brain

capacity for figuring out ways and means for getting things easily he is

never a great success at anything.

When the extremely fat man's mentality is below the average he often

refuses to work--in which case he becomes a familiar figure around

public rest rooms, parks and the cheaper hotel lobbies. Such a man

finally graduates into the class of professional chair-warmers.

Fat People Love Leisure

¶ A chance to do as we please, especially to do as little hard work as

possible, is a secret desire of almost everybody. But the fat man takes

the prize for wanting it most.

Not a Strenuous Worker

¶ He is not constructed to work hard like some of the other types, as we

shall see in subsequent chapters. His overweight is not only a handicap

in that it slows down his movements, but it tends to slow down all his

vital processes as well and to overload his heart. This gives him a

chronic feeling of heaviness and inertia.

Everybody Likes Him

¶ But Nature must have intended fat people to manage the rest of us

instead of taking a hand at the "heavy work." She made them averse to

toil and then made them so likable that they can usually get the rest of

us to do their hardest work for them.

The World Managed by Fat People

¶ When he is brainy the fat man never stays in the lower ranks of

subordinates. He may get a late start in an establishment but he will

soon make those _over_ him like him so well they will promote him to a

chief-clerkship, a foremanship or a managership. Once there he will make

those _under_ him so fond of him that they will work long and hard for


Fat Men to the Top

¶ In this way the fat man of real brains goes straight to the top while

others look on and bewail the fact that they do most of the actual work.

They fail to recognize that the world always pays the big salaries not

for hand work but for head work, and not so much for working yourself as

for your ability to get others to work.

The Popular Politician

¶ This capacity for managing, controlling and winning others is what

enables this type to succeed so well in politics. The fat man knows how

to get votes. He mixes with everybody, jokes with everybody, remembers

to ask how the children are--and pretty soon he's the head of his ward.

Almost every big political boss is fat.

Makes Others Work

¶ One man is but one man and at best can do little more than a good

man-size day of work. But a man who can induce a dozen other

man-machines to speed up and turn out a full day's work apiece doesn't

need to work his own hands. He serves his employer more valuably as an

overseer, foreman or supervisor.

The Fat Salesman

¶ "A fat drummer" is such a common phrase that we would think our ears

deceived us did anyone speak of a thin one. Approach five people and say

"A traveling salesman," each will tell you that the picture this

conjures in his imagination is of a fat, round, roly-poly, good natured,

pretty clever man whom everybody likes.

For the fat men are "born salesmen" and they make up a large percentage

of that profession. Salesmanship requires mentality plus a pleasing

personality. The fat man qualifies easily in the matter of personality.

Then he makes little or much money from salesmanship, according to his

mental capacity.

The Drummers' Funny Stories

¶ You will note that the conversation of fat people is well sprinkled

with funny stories. They enjoy a good joke better than any other type,

for a reason which will become more and more apparent to you.

¶ That salesmen are popularly supposed to regale each customer with

yarns till he gasps for breath and to get his signature on the dotted

line while he is in that weakened condition, is more or less of a myth.

It originated from the fact that most salesmen are fat and that fat

people tell stories well.

Jokes at Fat Men's Expense

¶ "Look at Fatty," "get a truck," and other jibes greet the fat man on

every hand. He knows he can not proceed a block without being the butt

of several jokes, but he listens to them all with an amiability

surprising to other types. And this good nature is so apparent that even

those who make sport of him are thinking to themselves: "I believe I'd

like that man."

The Fat Man's Habits

¶ "Never hurry and never worry" are the unconscious standards underlying

many of the reactions of this type. If you will compile a list of the

habits of any fat person you will find that they are mostly the

outgrowths of one or both of these motives.

Won't Speed Up

¶ You would have a hard time getting an Alimentive to follow out any

protracted line of action calling for strenuosity, speed or high

tension. He will get as much done as the strenuous man when their

mentalities are equal--and often more. The fat person keeps going in a

straight line, with uniform and uninterrupted effort, and does not have

the blow-outs common to more fidgety people. But hard, fast labor is not

in his line.

Loves Comedy

¶ All forms of mental depression are foreign to fat people as long as

they are in normal health. We have known a fat husband and wife to be

ejected for rent and spend the evening at the movies laughing like

four-year-olds at Charlie Chaplin or a Mack Sennett comedy. You have

sometimes seen fat people whose financial condition was pretty serious

and wondered how they could be so cheerful.

Inclined to Indolence

¶ Fat people's habits, being built around their points of strength and

weakness, are necessarily of two kinds--the desirable and the


The worst habits of this type are those inevitable to the ease-loving

and the immature-minded.

Indolence is one of his most undesirable traits and costs the Alimentive


In this country where energy, push and lightning-like efficiency are at

a premium only the fat man of brains can hope to keep up.

The inertia caused by his digestive processes is so great that it is

almost insurmountable. The heavy, lazy feeling you have after a large

meal is with the fat man interminably because his organism is constantly

in the process of digesting large amounts of food.

Likes Warm Rooms

¶ Love of comfort--especially such things as warm rooms and soft

beds--is so deeply imbedded in the fiber of this type that he has ever

to face a fight with himself which the rest of us do not encounter. This

sometimes leads the excessively corpulent person to relax into laziness

and slovenliness. An obese individual sometimes surprises us, however,

by his ambition and immaculateness.

But such a man or woman almost always combines decided mental tendencies

with his alimentiveness.

Enjoys Doing Favors

¶ The habits which endear the fat person to everyone and make us forget

his faults are his never-failing hospitality, kindness when you are in

trouble, his calming air of contentment, his tact, good nature and the

real pleasure he seems to experience when doing you a favor.

His worst faults wreak upon him far greater penalties than fall upon

those who associate with him, something that can not be said of the

faults of some other types.

Likes Melody

¶ Simple, natural music is a favorite with fat people. Love songs,

rollicking tunes and those full of melody are most popular with them. An

easy-to-learn, easy-to-sing song is the one a fat man chooses when he

names the next selection.

They like ragtime, jazz and music with a swing to it. Music the world

over is most popular with fat races. The world's greatest singers and

most of its famous musicians have been fat or at least decidedly plump.

Goes to the Cabaret

¶ The fat person will wiggle his toes, tap his fingers, swing his fork

and nod his head by the hour with a rumbling jazz orchestra.

When the Alimentive is combined with some other type he will also enjoy

other kinds of music but the pure Alimentive cares most for primal tunes

and melodies.

Likes a Girly-Show

¶ A pretty-girl show makes a hit with fat women as well as with fat men.

Drop into the "Passing Show" and note how many fat people are in the

audience. Drop into a theater the next night where a tragedy is being

enacted and see how few fat ones are there.

The One Made Sport Of

¶ Fat people enjoy helping out the players, if the opportunity offers.

All show people know this.

When one of those tricks is to be played from the foot-lights upon a

member of the audience the girl who does it is always careful to select

that circular gentleman down front. Let her try to mix up confetti or a

toy balloon with a tall skinny man and the police would get a hurry


When we describe the bony type you will note how very different he is

from our friend the fat man.

A Movie Fan

¶ "The fat man's theater" would be a fitting name for the movie houses

of the country. Not that the fat man is the only type patronizing the

cinema. The movies cover in one evening so many different kinds of human

interests--news, cartoons, features and comedy--that every type finds

upon the screen something to interest him.

But if you will do what we have done--stand at the doorway of the

leading movie theaters of your city any evening and keep a record of the

types that enter you will find the plump are as numerous as all the

others combined.

Easy Entertainment

¶ The reason for this is plain to all who are acquainted with Human

Analysis: the fat man wants everything the easiest possible way and the

movie fulfils this requirement more fully than any other theatrical

entertainment. He can drop in when he feels like it and there is no

waiting for the show to start, for one thing.

This is a decided advantage to him, for fat people do not like to depend

upon themselves for entertainment.

The Babies of the Race

¶ The first stage in biological evolution was the stage in which the

alimentary apparatus was developed. To assimilate nutriment was the

first function of all life and is so still, since it is the principal

requirement for self-preservation.

Being the first and most elemental of our five physiological systems the

Alimentive--when it overtops the others--produces a more elemental,

infantile nature. The pure Alimentive has rightly been called "the baby

of the race." This accounts for many of the characteristics of the

extremely fat person, including the fact that it is difficult for him to

amuse himself.

He of all types likes most to be amused and very simple toys and

activities are sufficient to do it.

Loves the Circus

¶ A serious drama or "problem play" usually bores him but he seldom

misses a circus.

The fat person expresses his immaturity also in that he likes to be

petted, made over and looked after.

¶ Like the infant he demands food first. Almost the only time a fat man

loses his temper is when he has been deprived of his food. The next

demand on his list is sleep, another characteristic of the immature.

Give a fat man "three squares" a day and plenty of sleep in a

comfortable bed, and he will walk off with the prize for good humor

three hundred and sixty-five days in the year. Next to sleep he demands

warm clothing in winter and steam heat when the wintry winds blow.

Fat People at the Beach

¶ If it were not for the exertion required in getting to and from the

beaches, dressing and undressing, and the momentary coldness of the

water, many more Alimentives would go to the beaches in Summer than do.

Not Strenuous

¶ Anything, to be popular with the Alimentive, must be easy to get, easy

to do, easy to get away from, easy to drop if he feels like it. Anything

requiring the expenditure of great energy, even though it promises

pleasure when achieved, is usually passed over by the fat people.

The Art of Getting Out Of It

¶ "Let George do it" is another bit of slang invented by this type. He

seldom does anything he really hates to do. He is so likable he either

induces you to let him out of it or gets somebody to do it for him. He

just naturally avoids everything that is intense, difficult or


The Peaceable Type

¶ If an unpleasant situation of a personal or social nature arises--a

quarrel, a misunderstanding or any kind of disagreement--the fat man

will try to get himself out of it without a discussion.

Except when they have square faces (in which case they are not pure

Alimentives), extremely fat people do not mix up in neighborhood,

family, church, club or political quarrels. It is too much trouble, for

one thing, and for another it is opposed to his peaceable, untensed


Avoids Expensive Quarrels

¶ The fat man has his eye on personal advantages and promotions and he

knows that quarrels are expensive, not alone in the chances they lose

him, but in nerve force and peace of mind.

The fat man knows instinctively that peace times are the most profitable

times and though he is not for "peace at any price" so far as the

country is concerned, he certainly is much inclined that way where he

is personally concerned. You will be amused to notice how this

peace-loving quality increases as one's weight increases. The more fat

any individual is the more is he inclined to get what he wants without


The Real Thing

¶ The favorite "good time" of the Alimentive is one where there are

plenty of refreshments. A dinner invitation always makes a hit with him,

but beware that you do not lure a fat person into your home and give him

a tea-with-lemon wisp where he expected a full meal!

Always Ready for Food

¶ Substantial viands can be served to him any hour of the day or night

with the certainty of pleasing him. He loves a banquet, _provided he is

not expected to make a speech_. The fat man has a harder time than any

other listening to long speeches.

The fashion of trying to mix the two most opposite extremes--food and

ideas--and expecting them to go down, was due to our misunderstanding of

the real nature of human beings. It is rapidly going out, as must every

fashion which fails to take the human instincts into account.

Avoids Sports

¶ No prizes lure a fat man into strenuous physical exercise or violent

sports. Although we have witnessed numerous state, national and

international tennis, polo, rowing, sprinting, hurdling and swimming

contests, we have seen not one player who was fat enough to be included

in the pure Alimentive type.

The grand-stands, bleachers and touring cars at these contests contained

a generous number of fat people, but their conversation indicated that

they were present more from personal interest in some contestant than in

the game itself.

The nearest a fat man usually comes to taking strenuous exercise is to

drive in an open car. The more easeful that car the better he likes it.

He avoids long walks as he would the plague, and catches a street car

for a two-block trip.

The Personal Element

¶ Due to his immaturity, the fat person gives little thought to anything

save those things which affect him personally.

The calm exterior, unruffled countenance and air of deliberation he

sometimes wears, and which have occasionally passed for "judicial"

qualities, are largely the results of the fact that the Alimentive

refuses to get stirred up over anything that does not concern him


This personal element will be found to dominate the activities,

conversation and interests of the Alimentive. For him to like a thing or

buy a thing it must come pretty near being something he can eat, wear,

live in or otherwise personally enjoy. He confines himself to the

concrete and tangible. But most of all he confines himself to things out

of which he gets something for himself.


¶ The fat man is no reader but when he does read it is nearly always

something funny, simple or sentimental. In newspapers he reads the

"funnies." Magazine stories, if short and full of sentiment, attract

him. He seldom reads an editorial and is not a book worm. The newspaper

furnishes practically all of the fat man's reading. He seldom owns a

library unless he is very rich, and then it is usually for "show."

Avoids Book Stores

¶ In making the investigations for this course, we interviewed many

clerks in the bookstores of leading cities throughout the United

States. Without exception they stated that few extremely fat people

patronized them. "I have been in this store seventeen years and I have

never sold a book to a two hundred and fifty pounder," one dealer told

us. All this is due to the fact with which we started this chapter--that

the fat man is built around his stomach--and stomachs do not read!

Naturally Realistic

¶ The fat man has the child's natural innocence and ignorance of subtle

and elusive things. He has the same interest in things and people as

does the child; the child's indifference to books, lectures, schools and

everything abstract.

Physical Assets

¶ "I believe I could digest nails!" exclaimed a fat friend of ours

recently. This perfect nutritive system constitutes the greatest

physical superiority of the Alimentive. So highly developed is his whole

stomach department that everything "agrees" with him. And everything

tends to make him fat.

As Irvin Cobb recently said: "It isn't true that one can't have his cake

and eat it, too, for the fat man eats his and keeps it--all."

Physical Liabilities

¶ A tendency to over-eat results naturally from the highly developed

eating and digesting system of this type but this in turn overtaxes all

the vital organs, as stated before. Also, the fat man's aversion to

exercise reduces his physical efficiency.

The pure Alimentive and the alimentively-inclined should learn their

normal weight and then keep within it if they desire long lives.

Social Assets

¶ Sweetness of disposition is one of the most valuable of all human

characteristics. Fat people possess it more often and more unchangingly

than any other type. Other social assets of this type are amenableness,

affability, hospitality and approachableness.

Social Liabilities

¶ Gaining his ends by flattery, cajolery, and various more or less

innocent little deceptions are the only social handicaps of this type.

Emotional Assets

¶ His unfailing optimism is the most marked emotional quality of this

type. Nothing can be so dark that the fat person doesn't find a silver

edge somewhere. So in disaster we always send for our fat friends. In

the presence of an amply-proportioned individual everything looks

brighter. Hope springs eternal in human breasts but the springs are

stronger in the plump folks than in the rest of us.

Money spending is also a marked feature of the fat man. His emotions are

out-going, never "in-growing." A stingy fat man is unknown.

Emotional Liabilities

¶ A tendency to become spoiled, to pout, and to take out his resentments

in babyish ways are the emotional weaknesses of this type. These, as you

will note, are the natural reactions of childhood, from which he never

fully emerges.

Business Assets

¶ The ability to make people like him is the greatest business and

professional asset of this type, and one every other type might well

emulate. One average-minded fat man near the door of a business

establishment will make more customers in a month by his geniality,

joviality and sociableness than a dozen brilliant thinkers will in a

year. Every business that deals directly with the public should have at

least one fat person in it.

Business Liabilities

¶ A habit of evading responsibility and of "getting out from under"

constitutes the inclination most harmful to the business or professional

ambitions of this type. Again it is the child in him trying to escape

the task set for it and at the same time to avoid punishment.

Domestic Strength

¶ Love of home is a distinguishing domestic trait of all fat people. The

fat man's provision for his family is usually as complete as his

circumstances will permit and he often stretches it a point.

As parents fat men and women are almost too easy-going for their own

future happiness, for they "spoil" their children. But they are more

loved by their children than any other type. Being so nearly children

themselves they make equals of their children, enter into their games

and live their lives with them.

Domestic Weakness

¶ Dependence on others, the tendency of allowing one's self to be

supported by brothers or sisters or wife, is the chief domestic weakness

of fat people. They should begin early in life to depend upon

themselves and make it a practice to carry their share of family


Should Aim At

¶ Developing more of his mental powers with a view to using his head to

lessen the manual work he so dislikes, and cultivating an interest in

the more mature side of the world in which he lives should be two of the

aims of all extremely fat people.

Should Avoid

¶ "Letting down," soft snaps and temptations to evade responsibility

should be avoided by the fat. Elbert Hubbard said, "Blessed is the man

who is not looking for a soft snap, for he is the only one who shall

find it." This explains why the fat man, unless brainy, seldom lands


Strongest Points

¶ Optimism, hospitality and harmony are the strongest points in the fat

man's nature. Upon them many a man has built a successful life. Without

them no individual of any type can hope to be happy.

His popularity and all-around compatibility give the fat man advantages

over other types which fairly compensate for the weak cogs in his


Weakest Points

¶ Self-indulgence of all kinds, over-eating, over-sleeping,

under-exercising and the evasion of responsibilities are the weakest

points of this type. Despite his many strong points his life is often

wrecked on these rocks. He so constantly tends to taking the easy way

out. Day by day he gives up chances for ultimate success for the baubles

of immediate ease.

He is the most likable of all the types but his indolence sometimes

strains even the love of his family to the breaking point.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

¶ Feed him, give him comfortable chairs--the largest you have--and don't

drag him into long discussions of any kind. This is the recipe for

winning the fat man when you meet him socially.

And whatever you do, don't tell him your troubles! The fat man hates

trouble, smothers his own, and you only make him ill at ease when you

regale him with yours.

Don't walk him any more than is absolutely necessary. Let him go home

early if he starts. He enjoys his sleep and doesn't like to have it

interfered with.

¶ Make your conversation deal with concrete personal things and events.

Stay away from highbrow subjects. The best places to eat and the best

shows of the week are safe subjects to introduce when with very fat


How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ Don't give him hard manual tasks. If you want this kind of work done

get some one other than an extremely fat man to do it. If you hire a fat

man blame yourself for the result.

Give your fat employee a chance to deal with people in a not-too-serious

way, but hold him strictly to the keeping of his records, reports and

working hours. If this fat person is a dealer, a merchant or a tradesman

keep him to his word. Start out by letting him know you expect the

delivery of just what he promises. Don't let him "jolly" you into

relinquishing what is rightfully yours. And keep in mind always that the

fat person is usually good at heart.

_Remember, the chief distinguishing marks of the Alimentive in the order


HANDS. A person who has these is largely of the Alimentive type, no

matter what other types may be included in his makeup._

[Illustration: 3 Thoracic the "thriller"]


The Thoracic Type

"The Thriller"

Individuals in whom the circulatory system (heart, arteries and blood

vessels) and the respiratory system (lungs, nose and chest) are more

highly developed than any other systems, have been named the Thoracics.

¶ This name comes from the fact that the heart and lungs (which

constitute the most important organs of these two closely-allied

systems) are housed in the thorax--that little room made by your ribs

for the protection of these vital organs.

Physical Resilience

¶ A general elasticity of structure, a suggestion of sinews and physical

resilience characterizes this type.

The Florid-Faced, High-Chested Individual

¶ What is known as a "red face," when accompanied by a high chest,

always signifies large thoracic tendencies. The high color which in an

adult comes and goes is a sure indication of a well developed

circulatory system, since high color is caused by the rapid pumping of

blood to the tiny blood vessels of the face.

People with little blood, weak hearts or deficient circulation are not

florid and must be much overheated or excited to show vivid color in

their cheeks.

Betray Their Feelings

¶ On the other hand, the slightest displeasure, enjoyment, surprise or

exertion brings the blood rushing to the face and neck of him who has a

large, well-developed blood-system. How many times you have heard such a

one say: "I am so embarrassed! I flush at every little thing! How I envy

the rest of you who come in from a long walk looking so cool!"

The Man of Great Chest Expansion

¶ The largest part of this man's body is around the chest. (See Chart 3)

His chest is high for the reason that he has larger lungs than the


Advantages of a High Chest

¶ The man of unusual chest-expansion has one great physical asset. The

person who breathes deeply has a decided advantage over the man who

breathes deficiently. The lungs form the bellows or air-supply for the

body's engine, the heart, and with a deficient supply of air the heart

does deficient work. Efficient breathing is easy only to the man of

large lungs, and only the high chested have large lungs.

Long-Waisted People

¶ A long waist is another thoracic sign, for it is a natural result of

the extra house-room required by the large lungs and heart. It is easily

detected in both men and women. (See Chart 3)

If you are a close observer you have noticed that some people appear to

have a waist line much lower than others; that the belt line dividing

the upper part of the body from the lower is proportionately much nearer

the floor in some than in others of the same height.

Passing of the "Wasp Waist"

¶ The "straight-up-and-down" lines of today's woman and the slimpsy

shoulder-to-heel garments she wears have obliterated her waistline, but

you will recall how differently the old "wasp waist" fashions of a score

of years ago betrayed the secrets of the short and long waist.

The eighteen-inch belt, of which we were so falsely proud in 1900, told

unmistakable facts about milady's thoracic development.

Belts vs. Suspenders

¶ As the tell-tale belt disappeared from woman's wardrobe it appeared in

man's, and now betrays the location of his waist with an exactness of

which the old-fashioned suspenders were never guilty.

To Test Yourself

¶ If you are a man and have difficulty in getting ready-made coats long

enough for you this is certain proof that you have decided thoracic

tendencies. If you are a woman who has to forego many a pretty gown

because it is not long enough in the waist, the same is true of you.

In women this long waist and high chest give the appearance of small

hips and of shoulders a little broader than the average; in men it gives

that straight, soldier-like bearing which makes this type of man admired

and gazed after as he strides down the street.

The Pure Thoracic Head

¶ A high head is a significant characteristic of the typical Thoracic.

(See Chart 4) The Anglo-Saxons tend to have this head and, more than any

other races, exhibit thoracic qualities as racial characteristics.

This is considered the handsomest head known. Certainly it lends the

appearance of nobility and intelligence. It is not wide, looked at from

the front or back, but inclines to be slightly narrower for its height

than the Alimentive head.

The Kite-Shaped Face

¶ A face widest through the cheek bones and tapering slightly up the

sides of the forehead and downward to the jaw bones is the face of the

pure Thoracic. (See Chart 4) This must not be mistaken for the pointed

chin nor the pointed head, but is merely a sloping of the face upward

and downward from the cheek bones as a result of the unusual width of

the nose section. (See Chart 4)

His Well-Developed Nose

¶ The nose section is also high and wide because the typical Thoracic

has a nose that is well developed. This is shown not only by its length

but by its high bridge.

[Illustration: 4 Typical Thoracic face]

The cause for the width and length of this section is obvious. The

nose constitutes the entrance and exit departments of the breathing

system. Large lung capacity necessitates a large chamber for the intake

and expulsion of air.

Signs of Good Lungs

¶ Whenever you see a man whose face is wide through the cheek

bones--with a long, high-bridged open-nostrilled nose--you see a man of

good lung capacity and of quick physical energy. When you see any one

with pinched nostrils, a face that is narrow through the cheek bones and

a low or "sway-back" nose, you see a man whose lung capacity is

deficient. Such a person invariably expends his physical energy more


Freckles, being due to the same causes as red hair and high color, are

further indications of thoracic tendencies, though you may belong to

this type with or without them.

The Typical Thoracic Hand

¶ The pointed hand is the hand of the pure Thoracic. (See Chart 4) Note

the extreme length of the second finger and the pointed effect of this

hand when all the fingers are laid together. Any person with a pointed

hand such as this has good thoracic development whether it occupies

first place in his makeup or not.

The fingers of the Thoracic are also inclined to be more thin-skinned

than those of other types.

One may be predominantly Thoracic without these elements but they are

indications of the extreme Thoracic type. Naturally the hand of the

extreme Thoracic is more pink than the average.

The Beautiful Foot

¶ The Thoracic tends to have more narrow, high-arched feet than other

types. As a result this type makes the majority of the beautifully shod.

The Man of Energetic Movements

¶ A hair-trigger nimbleness goes with this type. He is always "poised

ready to strike."

All Thoracics use their hands, arms, wrists, limbs and feet alertly and

energetically. They open doors, handle implements and all kinds of hand

instruments with little blundering. Also their movements are more

graceful than those of other types.

The Thoracic Walk

¶ "The springy step" must have been invented to describe the walk of the

Thoracic. No matter how hurried, his walk has more grace than the walk

of other types. He does not stumble; and it is seldom that a Thoracic

steps on the train of his partner's gown.

The Graceful Sitter

¶ The way you sit tells a great deal about your nature. One of the first

secrets it betrays is whether you are by nature graceful or ungainly.

The person who sits gracefully, who seems to drape himself becomingly

upon a chair and to arise from it with ease is usually a Thoracic.

Their excess of energy sometimes gives them the appearance of

"fidgeting," but it is an easy, graceful fidget and not as disturbing as

that of other types.

Keen Eye and Ear Senses

¶ Quick eyes and keen ears are characteristic of the Thoracics. The

millions of stimuli--the sounds, sights and smells impinging every

waking moment upon the human consciousness--affect him more quickly and

more intensely than any other type. The acuteness of all our senses

depends, to a far greater extent than we have hitherto supposed, upon

proper heart and lung action.

Take long, deep breaths for five minutes in the open air while walking

rapidly enough to make your heart pound, and see how much keener your

senses are at the end of that time.

The Thoracic is chronically in this condition because his heart and

lungs are going at top speed habitually and naturally all his life.

Susceptible to Heat

¶ Because bodily temperature varies according to the amount of blood and

the rapidity of its circulation, this type is always warmer than others.

He is extremely susceptible to heat, suffers keenly in warm rooms or

warm weather and wears fewer wraps in winter. The majority of bathers at

the beaches in summer are largely of this type.

The High-Strung

¶ Nerves as taut as a violin string--due to his acute physical senses

and his thin, sensitive skin--plus his instantaneous quickness make the

Thoracic what is known as "high-strung."

The Most Temperamental

¶ Because he is keyed to high C by nature, the Thoracic has more of that

quality called temperament than any other type.

The wag who said that "temperament was mostly temper" might have

reversed it and still have been right. For temper is largely a matter of

temperament. Since the Thoracics have more "temperament" it follows

naturally that they have more temper, or rather that they show it

oftener, just as they show their delightful qualities oftener.

A Continuous Performance

¶ This type, consciously and unconsciously, is a "continuous

performance." He is showing you something of himself every moment and if

you are interested in human nature, as your reading of this book

suggests, you are going to find him a fascinating subject. He is

expressing his feelings with more or less abandon all the time and he is

likely to express as many as a dozen different ones in as many moments.

The Quick Temper

¶ "Flying off the handle," and "going up in the air" are phrases

originally inspired by our dear, delightful friends, the Thoracics.

Other types do these more or less temperamental things but they do not

do them as frequently nor on as short notice as this type.

The Human Firefly

¶ A fiery nature is part and parcel of the Thoracic's makeup. But did

you ever see a fiery-natured man who didn't have lots of warm friends!

It is the grouch--in whom the fire starts slowly and smoulders

indefinitely--that nobody likes. But the man who flares up, flames for a

moment and is calm the next never lacks for companions or devotees.

The Red-Haired

¶ One may belong to the Thoracic type whether his hair is blonde or

brunette or any of the shades between, but it is an interesting fact

that most of the red-haired are largely of this type. "He didn't have

red hair for nothing" is a famous phrase that has been applied to the

red-haired, quick-tempered Thoracic for generations.

You will be interested to note that this high color and high chest are

distinctly noticeable in most of the red-haired people you know--certain

proof that they approximate this type.

As you walk down the street tomorrow look at the people ahead of you and

when you find a "red-head" notice how much more red his neck is than

the necks of the people walking beside him. This flushed skin almost

always accompanies red hair, showing that most red-haired people belong

to this type.

The "Flash in the Pan"

¶ The red-haired man's temper usually expends itself instantly. His

red-hot fieriness is over in a moment. But for every enemy he has two

friends--friends who like his flame, even though in constant danger from

it themselves.

Whereas the Alimentive avoids you if he disagrees with you, the Thoracic

likes to tell you in a few hot words just what he thinks of you. But the

chances are that he will be so completely over it by lunch time that he

will invite you out with him.

Desire for Approbation

¶ To be admired and a wee bit envied are desires dear to the heart of

this type. Everybody, to a greater or lesser degree, desires these

things, but to no other type do they mean so much as to this one. We

know this because no other type, in any such numbers, takes the trouble

or makes the sacrifices necessary to bring them about.

Acts Indicate Desires

¶ The ego of every individual craves approval but the majority of the

other types craves something else more--the particular something in each

case depending upon the type to which the individual belongs.

You can always tell what any individual WANTS MOST by what he DOES. The

man who _thinks_ he wants a thing or wishes he wanted it talks about

getting it, envies those who have it and _plans_ to start doing

something about it. But the man who really WANTS a thing GOES AFTER it,

sacrifices his leisure, his pleasures and sometimes love itself--and

GETS it.

Shines in Public Life

¶ The lime-light appeals more to this type than to others because it

goes further toward gratifying his desire for approbation. So while

other men and women are dreaming of fame the Thoracic practises, ploughs

and pleads his way to it.

The personal adulation of friends and of the multitude is the breath of

life to him. Extremes of this type consider no self-denial too great a

price to pay for it.

Many on the Stage

¶ The stage in all its forms is as natural a field to the Thoracic as

salesmanship is to the Alimentive. The pleas of fond papas and fearsome

mamas are usually ineffective with this type of boy or girl when he sets

his heart on a career before the foot-lights or in the movies.

Whether they achieve it or not will depend on other, and chiefly mental,

traits in each individual's makeup, but the yearning for it in some form

is always there. So the managers' waiting rooms are always crowded with

people of this type. It is this intensity of desire which has goaded and

inspired most stage artists on to success in their chosen fields.

"Put Yourself in His Place"

¶ To be able to put one's self in the role of another, to feel as he

feels; to be so keenly sensitive to his situation and psychology that

one almost becomes that person for the time being, is the heart and soul

of acting.

The Thoracic has this sensitiveness naturally. After long study and

acquaintance you may be able to put yourself in the place of a few

friends. The Thoracic does this instantly and automatically.

Tendency, Not Toil, Makes Fame

¶ Those who have succeeded to fame in any given line are wont to

proclaim, "Hard work is the secret of success," and to take great credit

unto themselves for the labor they have expended on their own.

It is true of course that all success entails hard work. But the man or

woman sufficiently gifted to rise to the heights gets from that gift

such a strong inward urge towards its expression that what he does in

that direction is not work to him. The long hours, concentration and

study devoted to it are more pleasurable than painful to him. He chooses

such activities voluntarily.

Nature the Real Artist

¶ Nothing can rightly be called work which one does out of sheer

preference. Work never made an actress and work never made a singer

where innate talent for these arts was lacking. Nature, the true maker

of every famous name, bestows ninety per cent and man, if he hustles,

can provide the other very necessary ten. But his sense of humor if not

his sense of justice should be sufficient to prevent his trying to rob

the Almighty of His due.

Success for All

¶ Every individual who is not feeble-minded can be a success at

something in this big world. Every normal-minded individual is able to

create, invent, improve, organize, build or market some of the myriads

of things the world is crying for. But he will succeed at only those

things in which his physiological and psychological mechanisms perform

their functions easily and naturally.

Why We Work

¶ Man is, by inclination, very little of a worker. He is, first, a

wanter--a bundle of instincts; second, a feeler--a bundle of emotions;

last and least, he is a thinker. What real work he does is done not

because he likes it but because it serves one of these first two bundles

of instincts.

When the desire for leisure is stronger than the other urges, leisure

wins. But in all ambitious men and women the desire for other things

outweighs the leisure-urge.

Ambition and Type

¶ Now what is it that causes some to have ambition and others to lack


Your ambitions take the form determined by your predominating

physiological system. For instance, in every great singer the Thoracic

has been present either as the first or second element.

The effect of the physical upon our talents is no more marked anywhere

than here. For it is his unusual lung power, his high chest, the

sounding boards in his nose section and his superior vocal cords that

make the real foundation of every singer's fame. These physiological

conditions are found in extreme degree only in persons of thoracic


It was the great lung-power of Caruso that made him a great singer. It

was his remarkable heart-power that brought him through an illness in

February, 1921, when every newspaper in the world carried on its front

page the positive statement that he could not live another day. That he

lived for six months afterward was due chiefly to his remarkable heart.

The nature resulting from a large heart and large lungs is one

distinctly different from all others--in short, the Thoracic nature.

The Best Dressed

¶ The best dressed man and the best dressed woman in your town belong

predominantly to this type. This is no accident. The Thoracics, being

possessed of acute eye senses, are more sensitive to color and line than

any other type. These are the foundations of "style" and artistic


Clothes Can Unmake the Man

¶ Being desirous of the approval of others and realizing that though

clothes do not make the man they can unmake him, this type looks to his

laurels on this point.

Because clothes determine the first impressions we make upon strangers

and because that impression is difficult to change, clothes are of vast

importance in this maze of human relationships.

The Thoracic is more sensitive to the attitude of others because their

attitude is more vital to his self-expression. He senses from childhood

the bearing that clothes have for or against him in the opinion of

others and how they can aid him to express his personality.

The Glass of Fashion

¶ The Thoracic therefore often becomes "the glass of fashion and the

mold of form." His consciousness of himself is so keen that, even when

alone, he prefers those things in dress which are at once fine, fancy

and fashionable.

Some types are indifferent to clothes, some ignorant of clothes and some

defiant in their clothes but the Thoracic always has a keen sense of

fitness in the matter of apparel.

Distinction in Dress

¶ The distinctive dresser is one who essays the extremely fashionable,

the "last moment" touch. He is always a step or two ahead of the times.

His ties, handbags, handkerchiefs and stick pins are "up to the minute."

Such a man or woman invariably has a large thoracic development and is

well repaid by the public for his pains.

Dress the Universal Language

¶ The public looks more eagerly than we suppose to changes in styles and

fads. It gives, in spite of itself, instantaneous admiration of a sort

to those who follow the dictates of fashion. This being one of the

quickest roads to adulation, it is often utilized by this type.

The Newest in Hairdressing

¶ The latest thing in coiffures is always known by the Thoracic woman.

And because she is, more often than any other type, a beautiful woman

she can wear her hair in almost any style and find it becoming.

So when puffs were the thing this type of woman not only wore puffs but

the most extreme and numerous puffs. When the "sticking-to-the-face"

style was in vogue she bought much bandoline and essayed the sleekest

and shiniest head of all. When the ear-bun raged she changed those same

paper-like curls over night into veritable young sofa cushions.

Always on "Dress Parade"

¶ With intent to keep the spotlight on himself the Thoracic is always on

dress parade. He is vividly aware of himself; he knows what kind of

picture he is making. He is seldom "self-conscious," in the sense of

being timid. When he does happen to be timid he suffers, by reason of

his greater desire for approval, more acutely than any other type.

Affectability His Keynote

¶ Instantaneous reaction to stimuli--with all the reflex actions

resulting therefrom--constitutes the keynote of this type. This makes an

individual who is physiologically and psychologically affectable.

Because life is full of all kinds of stimuli, acting during every waking

moment upon every sense in the organism, any person who is high strung

finds himself in the midst of what might be called "nerve-bedlam."

Gets the Most Out of Everything

¶ Because of this same highly sensitized makeup the Thoracic gets more

sensations out of every incident than the rest of us do. He experiences

more joy in the space of a lifetime but also more disappointment.

The Human Violin

¶ For the same reason that the violin vibrates to a greater number of

sounds than the organ, the Thoracic is a more vibrant individual than

others. He is impelled to an expressiveness of voice, manner and action

that often looks like pretence to less impulsive people. In other types

it would be, but to the Thoracic it is so natural and normal that he is

often much surprised to hear that he has the reputation of being


A Reputation for Flightiness

¶ This lightning-like liveliness of face, body and voice, his quick

replies and instantaneous reactions to everything also cause him to be

called "flighty."

The Quick Thinker

¶ We are prone to judge every one by ourselves. People whose mental or

physical senses are less "keyed-up," less sensitive, call the Thoracic


Usually such a man's brain is not rattled at all; it is working, as all

brains do in response to the messages reaching it, via the telegraph

wires of the five senses.

In the Thoracic these wires happen to be more taut than in the other

types. He gets sensations from sights, sounds, tastes, touches and

smells much more quickly than the rest of us do. These messages are sent

to the brain more rapidly and, since sensation is responsible for much

of our thinking, this man's brain thinks a little more speedily than

that of other types.

It does not necessarily think any better. Often it does need slowing

down. But compared to the thought-power of some of the other types the

Thoracic's speed makes up for much of his carelessness. He makes more

mistakes in judgment than other types but can "right-about-face" so

quickly he usually remedies them while other types are still trying to

decide when to start.

To hold himself back is the hardest lesson for this type to learn.

His Changeability

¶ This tendency to let himself go brings the Thoracic a great deal of

unhappiness and failure. He plunges so quickly that he often fails to

take into consideration the various elements of the situation.

His physical senses tell him a thing should be done and rush him

headlong into actions that he knows are ill-advised the moment he has

time to think them over. In turning around and righting his mistakes he

often hears himself called "changeable" and "vacillating."

His "Batting Average"

¶ In this, as in other things, we have a tendency toward smugness,

shortsightedness and egotism. The man who makes but one mistake a year

because he makes but two decisions is wrong fifty per cent of the time.

Yet he self-satisfiedly considers himself superior to the Thoracic

because he has caught the latter in six "poor deals within six months."

At the rate the average Thoracic acts this would be about one mistake in

a thousand--a much "better batting average" than the other man's.

But because the confidence of others in our stability is of prime

importance to us all, this type or any one inclined to definite thoracic

tendencies should take pains to prevent this impression from settling

into the minds of his friends.

Should Get Onto the Highway

¶ The greatest reason for striving toward stability in action and more

slowness in decision, however, is for his own future's sake. The man who

is constantly making decisions and being compelled to alter them gets

nowhere. He may have the best engine and the finest car in the world but

if he runs first down this by-path, and then that, he will make little

progress on the main highway.

Should Have an Aim

¶ An aim, a definite goal is essential to the progress of any

individual. It should be made with care and in keeping with one's

personality, talents, training, education, environment and experience,

and having been made should be adhered to with the determination which

does not permit little things to interfere with it.

Eliminating Non-Essentials

¶ The big problem of individual success is the problem of eliminating

non-essentials--of "hewing to the line, letting the chips fall where

they may." Most of the things that steal your time, strength, money and

energy are nothing but chips. If you pay too much attention to them you

will never hew out anything worth while.

No Vain Regrets

¶ If you are a Thoracic don't regret the fact that you are not a

one-decision-a-year man, but try to make fewer and better decisions.

Your quickness, if called into counsel, will enable you to see from what

instincts your mistakes habitually arise and the direction in which most

of them have pointed. And you will see this with so much greater

dispatch than the average person that you will lose little time.

You should begin today to analyze your most common errors in judgment

that you may guard against their recurrence.

Always Slightly Thrilled

¶ Even when apparently composed the Thoracic is always a wee bit

thrilled. Everything he sees, hears, touches, tastes or smells gives him

such keen sensations that he lives momentarily in some kind of


He languishes in an unchanging environment and finds monotony almost


Lights and Shadows

¶ "Never two minutes the same" fitly describes this type. He passes

rapidly from one vivid sensation to another and expresses each one so

completely that he is soon ready for the next. He has fewer complexes

than any other type because he does not inhibit as much.

The Uncorked Bottle

¶ The "lid" is always off of the Thoracic. This being the case he

suffers little from "mental congestion" though he sometimes pays a high

price for his self-expression.

Everybody is Interesting

¶ Most of us are much more interesting than the world suspects. But the

world is not made up of mind readers. We keep our most interesting

thoughts and the most interesting side of ourselves hidden away. Even

your dearest friends are seldom given a peep into the actual You. And

this despite the fact that we all recognize this as a deficiency in


We bottle up ourselves and defy the world's cork-screws--all save the

Thoracic. He allows his associates to see much of what is passing in his

mind all the time. Because we are all interested in the real individual

and not in masks this type usually is much sought after.

Not Secretive

¶ The Thoracic does not by preference cover up; he does not by

preference secrete; he does not, except when necessary, keep his plans

and ways dark. He is likely to tell not only his family but his newest

acquaintances just what he is planning to do and how he expects to do


The naturally secretive person who vaguely refers to "a certain party"

when he has occasion to speak of another is the exact opposite of this


His "Human Interest"

¶ We are all interested in the little comings and goings of our

friends. Upon this fact every magazine and newspaper builds its "human

interest" stories. We may be indifferent to what the President of the

United States is doing about international relations but what he had for

breakfast is mighty interesting. Few people read inaugural addresses,

significant though they often are to the world and to the reader

himself. But if the President would write ten volumes on "Just How I

Spend My Sundays," it would be a "best seller."

Naturally Confidential

¶ Personal experiences, personal secrets and personal preferences are

subjects we are all interested in. These are the very things with which

the Thoracic regales his friends and about which he is more frank and

outspoken than any other type. He makes many friends by his obvious

openness and his capacity for seeing the interesting details which

others overlook.

Charming Conversationalist

¶ Colorful, vivid words and phrases come easily to the tongue of this

type for he sees the unusual, the fascinating, in everything. Since any

one can make a thing interesting to others if he is really interested

in it himself, the Thoracic makes others see and feel what he describes.

He is therefore known as the most charming conversationalist.

Beautiful Voice

¶ The most beautiful voices belong to people who are largely of this

type. This is due, as we have said before, to physiological causes. The

high chest, sensitive vocal cords, capacious sounding boards in the nose

and roof of the mouth all tend to give the voice of the Thoracic many

nuances and accents never found in other types.

His pleasing voice plus the vividness of his expressions and his lack of

reticence in giving the intimate and interesting details are other

traits which help to make the Thoracic a lively companion.

The Lure of Spontaneity

¶ The most beloved people in the world are the spontaneous. We lead such

drab lives ourselves and keep back so much, we like to see a little

Niagara of human emotion occasionally. The Thoracic feels everything

keenly. Life's experiences make vivid records on the sensitive plate of

his mind. He puts them on the Victrola that is himself and proceeds to

run them off for your entertainment.

Sometimes a "Bubbler"

¶ "A constant stream of talk" must have been first said in describing

this type. For while others are carefully guarding their real feelings

and thoughts the Thoracic goes merrily on relieving himself of his.

More sedate and somber types call the Thoracics "bubblers" or "spouters"

just for this reason.

The Incessant Talker

¶ "That person's talk gets on my nerves," is a remark often made by one

of the staid, stiff types concerning the seldom silent, extremely florid

individual. So natural is this to the Thoracic that he is entirely

unconscious of the wearing effect he has on other people.

A Sense of Humor

¶ Seeing the funny side of everything is a capacity which comes more

naturally to this type than to others. This is due to the psychological

fact that nothing is truly humorous save what is slightly "out of


Real humor lies in detecting and describing that intangible quirk. No

type has the sensitiveness essential to this in any such degree as the

Thoracic. Individuals of other types sometimes possess a keen sense of

humor. This trait is not confined to the Thoracic. But it is a

significant fact that almost every humorist of note has had this type as

the first or second element in his makeup.

The Human Fireworks

¶ "He is a skyrocket," or "she is a firefly," are phrases often used to

describe that vivacious individual whose adeptness at repartee puts the

rest of the crowd in the background. These people are always largely or

purely Thoracic. They never belong predominately to the fourth type.

The next time you find such a person note how his eyes flash, how his

color comes and goes and the many indescribable gradations of voice

which make him the center of things.

"He is always shooting sparks," said a man recently in describing a

florid, high-chested friend.

Never Dull Company

¶ His "line" may not interest you but the Thoracic himself is usually

interesting. He is an actual curiosity to the quiet, inexpressive people

who never can fathom how he manages to talk so frankly and so fast.

Such a person is seldom dull. He is everything from a condiment to a

cocktail and has the same effect on the average group of more or less

drab personalities.

Lives in the Heights and Depths

¶ "Glad one moment and sad the next" is the way the ticker would read if

it could make a record of the inner feelings of the average Thoracic.

These feelings often come and go without his having the least notion of

what causes them. Ordinarily these unaccountable moods are due to

sensations reaching his subconscious mind, of which no cognizance is

taken by his conscious processes.

Called "Intuitive"

¶ This ability to "get" things, to respond quickly with his physical

reactions while devoting his mental ones to something else, has obtained

for this type the reputation of possessing more "intuition" than others.

Source of "Hunches"

¶ That there is no such thing as intuition in the old sense of getting a

"hunch" from the outside is now agreed by psychologists. The thing we

have called intuition, they maintain, is not due to irregular or

supernatural causes but to our own normal natural mental processes.

The impression that he gets this knowledge or suspicion from the outside

is due, the scientists say, to the fact that his thinking has proceeded

at such lightning-like speed that he was unable to watch the wheels go

round. The only thing of which he is conscious is the final result or

sum at the bottom of the column called his "hunch." He is not aware of

the addition and subtraction which his mind went through to get it for


Easily Excited

¶ "Off like a shot" is a term often applied to the Thoracic. He is the

most easily excited of all types but also the most easily calmed. He

recovers from every mood more quickly and more completely than other

types. Under the influence of emotion he often does things for which he

is sorry immediately afterward.

On the Spur of the Moment

¶ This type usually does a thing quickly or not at all. He is a gun that

is always cocked. So he hits a great many things in the course of a

lifetime and leads the most exciting existence of any type. Being able

to get thrills out of the most commonplace event because of seeing

elements in it which others overlook, he finds in everyday life more

novelty than others ever see.

The Adventurers

¶ Romance and adventure always interest this type. He lives for thrills

and novel reactions and usually spares no pains or money to get them. A

very slangy but very expressive term used frequently by these people is,

"I got a real kick out of that."

This craving for adventure, suspense and zest often lures this type into

speculation, gambling and various games of chance. The danger in flying,

deep-sea diving, auto-racing and similar fields has a strong appeal for

this type--so strong that practically every man or woman who follows

these professions is of this type.

Tires of Sameness

¶ The Thoracic soon tires of the same suit, the same gown, the same

house, the same town and even the same girl. He wrings the utmost out of

each experience so quickly and so completely that he is forever on the

lookout for new worlds to conquer. Past experiences are to him as so

many lemons out of which he has taken all the juice. He anticipates

those of the future as so many more to be utilized in the same way.

Likes Responsive People

¶ We all like answers. We want to be assured that what we have said or

done has registered. The Thoracic is always saying or doing something

and can't understand why other people are so unresponsive. He is as

responsive as a radio wire. Everything hits the mark with him and he

lets you know it. So, naturally, he enjoys the same from others and

considers those less expressive than himself stiff, formal or dull.

The kind of person the Thoracic likes best is one sufficiently like

himself to nod and smile and show that he fully understands but who will

not interrupt his stream of talk.

People He Dislikes

¶ The stolid, indifferent or cold are people the Thoracic comes very

near disliking. Their evident self-complacency and immobility are things

he does not understand at all and with which he has little patience.

Such people seem to him to be cold, unfeeling, almost dead. So he steers

clear of them. It was surely a Thoracic who first called these people

"sticks." But the reason for their acting like sticks will be apparent

in another chapter.

His Pet Aversions

¶ Whereas the Alimentive avoids people he does not care for, the

Thoracic is inclined to betray his aversions. He occasionally delights

to put people he dislikes at a disadvantage by his wit or satire. The

stony individual who walks through life like an Ionian pillar is a

complete mystery to the Thoracic; and the pillar returns the compliment.

We do not like anything we do not understand and we seldom understand

anything that differs decidedly from ourselves.

Thus we distrust and dislike foreigners, and to a greater or lesser

extent other families, people from other sections of the country, etc.

The Easterner and Westerner have a natural distrust of each other; and

the Civil War is not the only reason for the incompatibility of

Southerners and Northerners.

So it is with individuals. Those who differ too widely in type never

understand each other. They have too little of the chief thing that

builds friendships--emotions in common.

The Forgiving Man

¶ If you have once been a real friend of a Thoracic and a quarrel comes

between you, he may be ever so bitter and biting in the moment of his

anger but in most cases he will forgive you eventually.

Really Forgets Disagreements

¶ It is not as easy for other types to forgive; they often refrain from

attempting a reconciliation. But the Thoracic's forgiveness is not only

spontaneous but genuine.

The Alimentive bears no grudges because it is too much trouble. The

Thoracic finds it hard to maintain a grudge because he gets over it just

as he gets over everything else. His anger oozes away or he wakes up

some fine morning and finds, like the boy recovering from the

chickenpox, that he "simply hasn't it any more."

Diseases He is Most Susceptible To

¶ Acute diseases are the ones chiefly affecting this type. Everything in

his organism tends to suddenness and not to sameness.

Just as he is inclined to get into and out of psychological experiences

quickly, so he is inclined to sudden illnesses and to sudden

recuperations. A Thoracic seldom has any kind of chronic ailment. If he

acquires a superabundance of avoirdupois he is in danger of apoplexy.

The combination of extreme Thoracic and extreme Alimentive tendencies is

the cause of this disease.

Likes Fancy Foods

¶ Variety and novelty in food are much enjoyed by this type. The

Alimentive likes lots of rich food but he is not so desirous of

varieties or freak dishes. But the Thoracic specializes in them.

You can not mention any kind of strange new dish whose investigation

won't appeal to some one in the crowd, and that person is always

somewhat thoracic. It gives him another promise of "newness."

Foreign dishes of all kinds depend for their introduction into this

country almost entirely upon these florid patrons. According to the

statements of restauranteurs this type says, "I will try anything once."

Many-course dinners, if the food is good, are especially popular with


"The Trimmings" at Dinner

¶ Out-of-the-ordinary surroundings in which to dine are always welcome

to this type. The hangings, pictures, and furniture mean much to him.

Most people like music at meals but to the Thoracic it is almost

indispensable. He is so alive in every nerve, so keyed-up and has such

intense capacity for enjoyment of many things simultaneously that he

demands more than other types. An attentive waiter who ministers to

every movement and anticipates every wish is also a favorite with the

Thoracic when out for dinner.

Sensitive to His Surroundings

¶ Colorful surroundings are more necessary to the Thoracic than to other

types. The ever-changing fashions in house decorations are welcome

innovations to him. He soon grows tired of a thing regardless of how

much he liked it to begin with.

Take notice amongst your friends and you will see that the girl who

changes the furniture all around every few weeks is invariably of this

type. "It makes me feel that I have changed my location and takes the

place of a trip," explained one girl not long ago.

Wants "Something Different"

¶ The exact color of hangings, wall-paper, interior decorations and

accessories are matters of vital import to this type. Whereas the

Alimentives demand comfort, the Thoracics ask for "something different,"

something that catches and holds the eye--that makes an instantaneous

impression upon the onlooker and gives him one more thing by which to

remember the personality of the one who lives there.

This type considers his room and home as a part of himself and takes the

pains with them which he bestows upon his clothes.

When He is Rich

¶ Wealth to the Thoracic means unlimited opportunity for achieving the

unusual in everything. His tastes are more extravagant than those of

other types. Uncommon works of art are usually found in the homes of

this type. The most extraordinary things from the most extraordinary

places are especial preferences with him.

He carries out his desire for attention here as in everything else and

what he buys will serve that end directly or indirectly.

Fashion and "Flare"

¶ "Flare" aptly describes the quality which the pure Thoracic desires in

all that touches him and his personality. It must have verve and "go"

and distinctiveness. It must be "the latest" and "the thing."

He is the last type of all to submit to wearing last year's suit,

singing last year's songs, or driving in a last year's model.

Likes Dash

¶ The Thoracic wants everything he wears, drives, lives in or owns to

"get across," to make an impression. The fat man loves comfort above all

else, but the florid man loves distinction.

He does not demand such easy-to-wear garments as the fat man. On the

contrary, he will undergo extreme discomfort if it gives him a

distinctive appearance. He wants his house to be elegant, the grounds

"different," the view unusual.

Has Color Sense

¶ Whereas the fat man when furnishing a home devotes his attention to

soft beds, steam heat and plenty of cushioned divans, the Thoracic

thinks of the chandeliers, the unusual chairs, the pretty front

doorstep, the landscape gardening and the color schemes.

When He is in Moderate Circumstances

¶ When only well to do this type will be found to have carried out

furnishings and decorations with the taste worthy of much larger purses.

When merely well to do he wears the very best clothes he can possibly

afford, and often a good deal better. This type does not purpose to be

outwitted by life. He tries always to put up a good showing.

When He is Poor

¶ The Thoracic is seldom poor. He has so much personality, ginger and go

of the sort that is required in the world of today that he usually has a

good position. He may not like the position. But in spite of the fact

that he finds it harder to tolerate disagreeable things than any other

type, he will endure it for he knows that the rewards he is after can

not be had by the down-and-outer.

The natural and normal vanity of the Thoracic stands him in hand here

more than in almost any other place in life.

The World Entertained by Them

¶ Behind every row of foot-lights you will find more people of this type

than any other. The Alimentive manages the world but the Thoracic

entertains it.

He comprises more of the dancers, actors, operatic stars and general

entertainers than any other two types combined. In everything save

acrobatics and oratory he holds the platform laurels.

As already pointed out, his adaptability, spontaneity and love of

approval are responsible for this.

His Fastidious Habits

¶ The Thoracic is the most fastidious of all the types. His thin skin

and sensitive nerves make him more conscious of roughness and

slovenliness than others. The result is that he is what is called "more

particular" about his person than are other types. The fat man often

wears an old pair of shoes long past their usefulness, but the florid

man thinks more of the impression he creates than of his own personal

comfort, and will wear the shiniest of patent leathers on the hottest

day if they are the best match for his suit.

Likes All Music

¶ Every kind of music is enjoyed by the pure Thoracic because he

experiences so many moods.

Entertainment He Prefers

¶ Social affairs of an exclusive order where he wears his "best bib and

tucker" and everybody else does the same, are amongst the favorite

diversions of this type. He makes a favorable impression under such

conditions and is well aware of it.

Other reasons for this preference are his brilliant conversational

powers, his charm and his enjoyment of other people and their

view-points. The Thoracic is also exceedingly fond of dancing.

Enjoys Vaudeville

¶ The average Thoracic enjoys vaudeville, Follies, revues, etc., because

they are full of quick changes of program. He enjoys, as does every

type, certain kinds of movies, but he constitutes no such percentage of

the movie-going audience as some other types.


¶ Books and stories that are romantic, adventurous, and different are

the favorites of this type. Detective stories are often in high favor

with him also.

Physical Assets

¶ The physical advantages of this type are his quick energy--based on

his wonderful breathing system--and the rich, rapid-flowing blood,

produced by his wonderful heart system.

He is noted for his ability to get "his second wind" and has remarkable

capacity for rising to sudden physical emergencies.

Physical Liabilities

¶ A tendency to over-excitement and the consequent running down of his

batteries is a physical pitfall often fatal to this type.

Favorite Sports

¶ Hurdling, sprinting, tennis and all sports requiring short, intense

spurts of energy are the ones in which this type excels.

Social Assets

¶ Charm and responsiveness are the chief social assets of the Thoracic.

Inasmuch as these are the most valuable of all social traits, he has a

better natural start in human relationships than any other type.

Social Liabilities

¶ Quick temper, his inflammable nature and appearances of vanity are his

greatest social liabilities. They stand between him and success many

times. He must learn to control them if he desires to reap the full

benefit of his remarkable assets.

Emotional Assets

¶ Instantaneous sympathy and the lack of poisonous inhibitions are the

outstanding emotional assets of this type.

Emotional Liabilities

¶ Impatience, mercurial emotions and the expenditure of too much of his

electricity in every little experience are the tendencies most to be

guarded against.

Business Assets

¶ That he is a "good mixer" and has the magnetism to interest and

attract others are his most valuable business traits.

Business Liabilities

¶ An appearance of flightiness and his tendency to hop from one subject

to another, stand in the way of the Thoracic's promotion many times.

Domestic Strength

¶ The ability to entertain and please his own family and to give of

himself to them as freely as he gives himself to the world at large, is

one of the most lovable thoracic traits.

Domestic Weakness

¶ The temperament and temper of this type constitute a real domestic

problem for those who live with them. But they are so forgiving

themselves that it is almost impossible to hold anything against them.

Should Aim At

¶ The Thoracic should aim at making fewer decisions, at finishing what

he starts, and of wasting less energy in unnecessary words and motions.

Should Avoid

¶ All situations, conditions and people who "Slip the belt off the

will," who tend to cut life up into bits by dissipation or

pleasure-seeking, should be avoided by this type because they aggravate

his own weaknesses in that direction.

Strong Points

¶ Personal ambition, adaptability and quick physical energy are the

strongest points of the Thoracic.

Weakest Points

¶ Too great excitability, irresponsibility and supersensitiveness, are

the weakest points of this type.

How to Deal with This Type Socially

¶ Give him esthetic surroundings, encourage him to talk, and respond to

what he says. These are the certain methods for winning him in social


How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ Get his name on the dotted line NOW, or don't expect it. If he is an

employee let him come into direct contact with people, give his

personality a chance to get business for you, don't forget to praise him

when deserved, and don't pin him down to routine. This type succeeds

best in professions where his personal charm can be capitalized, and

does _not_ belong in any strictly commercial business.

_Remember, the chief distinguishing marks of the Thoracic in the order

of their importance, are FLUSHED COMPLEXION, HIGH CHEST and LONG WAIST.

Any person who has these is largely of the Thoracic type, no matter what

other types may be included in his makeup._


The Muscular Type

"The Worker"

People in whom the muscular system is proportionately larger and more

highly developed than any of their other systems are Musculars. This

system consists of the muscles of the organism.

The "Lean Meat" Type

¶ The muscle-system of the human body is simply a co-ordinated,

organized arrangement of layers of lean meat, of which every individual

has a complete set.

An individual's muscles may be small, flabby, deficient in strength or

so thin as to be almost imperceptible but they are always

there--elementary in the infant, full grown in the adult and remnants in

the aged. But they are so smoothly fitted together, so closely knitted

and usually so well covered that we seldom realize their complexity or


In the pure Muscular type his muscles are firm and large. Such muscles

can not be disguised but seem to stand out all over him.

Helpless Without Them

¶ Without them we would be helpless masses of fat and bone; we could not

blink an eye nor lift a finger. Yet we are so accustomed to them that we

rarely think of them and seldom give them credit for what they do.

Without their wonder-work to adjust the eyes we could not see; without

their power the heart would cease to beat. We can not smile, sob, speak

nor sing without using them. We would have no pianists, violinists,

dancers, aviators, inventors or workers of any kind without them.

Everything we put together--from hooks and eyes to skyscrapers--is

planned by our brains but depends for its materialization upon the

muscles of the human body.

How to Know Him

¶ Look at any individual and you will note one of these three

conditions: that his bones seem to be covered just by skin and sinews

(which means that he belongs to the fourth type) or thickly padded with

fat (in which case he is largely of the first type) or well upholstered

with _firm_ meat.

In the latter case he is largely Muscular, no matter what other types

may be present in his makeup.

In a short time you will be able to tell, at a glance, whether the

padding on an individual is mostly fat or mostly muscle, because fat is

always round and soft while muscle is firm and definite.

Physical Solidity

¶ A general solidity of structure, as distinguished from the softness of

the Alimentive and the resilience of the Thoracic, characterizes the

Muscular. (See Chart 5)

Poke your finger into a fat man's hand and though it makes a dent that

dent puffs back quickly. Do the same to the Muscular and you will find a

firmness and toughness of fiber that resists but stays there longer once

the dent is made.

Not So Malleable

¶ This little illustration is typical of the differences between these

two natures throughout their entirety. Just as the fat man's face gives

to your touch, _he_ will give in to you more easily than any other

type; but he will go back to the same place sooner and more smoothly

when your pressure is removed.

[Illustration: 5 Muscular the worker]

The Muscular does not mold so easily, is less suggestible, is less

tractable than the Alimentive or Thoracic but is less likely to revert


Built on the Square

¶ "On the Square" is a figurative expression usually applying to a moral

tendency. In this sense it is as often possessed by one type as another.

But in a purely literal sense the Muscular is actually built on the

square. His whole figure is a combination of squares.

The Alimentive is built upon the circle, the Thoracic on the kite-shape

but the pure Muscular always tends toward a squareness of outline.

We repeat, he is no more "square" morally than any other type, so do not

make the mistake of attributing any more of this virtue to him than to


¶ Each type has its own weaknesses and points of strength as

differentiated from other types and these are responsible for most of

the moral differences between people.

No Type Superior Morally

¶ Since moral weakness comes from type weakness and since each type

possesses about as many weaknesses as the others, it follows that no

type is superior "morally" to any other and no type is morally inferior

to any other.

Type and Temptation

¶ Morality is mostly a matter of how much temptation you can withstand.

Every individual in a civilized community is surrounded by temptations

of some kind most of the time. He does not want to yield to any of them.

Every man and woman does the best of which his particular type is

capable under a given circumstance.

Each individual resists many temptations for which we fail to give him

credit. He yields only to those which make such a strong appeal to his

type that he lacks the power of resistance.

In other words, each person yields to the temptations that prey upon his

particular weaknesses, and what his weaknesses are will depend upon his

type. In the grip of these temptations he may commit anything from

discourtesy to crime--according to the strength of the temptation plus

his own leaning in that direction.

On the other hand, certain "immoralities" which appeal strongly to some

types have no attraction whatever for others and these latter get credit

for a virtuousness that has cost them nothing.

Praise and Punishment

¶ On the other hand, each one of the five human types has certain points

of strength and from these gets its natural "moral" qualities. We spend

a great deal of energy giving praise and blame but when we realize--as

we are doing more and more--that the type of an individual is

responsible for most of his acts, we will give less of both to the

individual and more of both to the Creator.

Type vs. Training

¶ The most that training can do is to brace up the weak spots in us; to

cultivate the strong ones; to teach us to avoid inimical environments;

and to constantly remind us of the penalties we pay whenever we digress.

Child Training

¶ As this great science of Human Analysis becomes known the world will

understand for the first time "how the other half lives," and _why_ it

lives that way.

We will know why one child just naturally tells fibs while his twin

brother, under identical training, just naturally tells the truth. What

is more to the point we will know this in their childhood and be

prepared to give to each the kind of training which will weed out his

worst and bring out his best.

Short and Stocky

¶ The extreme Muscular type (See Chart 5) is below medium height, though

one of any height may be largely muscular.

The extreme type, of which we are treating in this chapter, is shorter

and heavier than the average. But his heaviness is due to _muscle_

instead of fat. He has the appearance of standing firmly, solidly upon

the ground, of being stalwart and strong.

The Square-Shouldered Man

¶ The Muscular's shoulders stand out more nearly at right angles than

those of any other type and are much broader in proportion to his

height. The Alimentive has sloping shoulders and the Thoracic inclines

to high shoulders. But the shoulders of the pure Muscular are

straighter and have a squareness where the Alimentive's have curves.

This accounts for the fact that most of the square shouldered men you

have known were not tall men, but medium or below medium in height. The

wide square shoulders do not accompany any other pure type, though

naturally they may be present in an individual who is a combination.

Has Proportionately Long Arms

¶ The arms of pure Musculars are longer in proportion to the body than

the arms of other types. The arms of the Alimentive are short for his

body but the extreme Muscular's arms are always anywhere from slightly

longer to very much longer than his height would lead you to expect.

The Pure Muscular Head

¶ A "square head" is the first thing you think of when you look at a

pure Muscular. His head has no such decided digressions from the normal

as the round head of the Alimentive or the kite-shaped head of the

Thoracic. It is not high for his body like the Thoracic's nor small for

his body like the Alimentive's, but is of average proportions.

[Illustration: 6 Typical MUSCULAR face Typical MUSCULAR hand]

His Thick Neck

¶ A distinctive feature of this type is his thick neck. It is not fat

like that of the Alimentive nor medium long like that of the Thoracic

but has unusual muscularity and strength.

This is one of the chief indications of the Muscular's strength. A

sturdy neck is one of the most significant indications of physical

prowess and longevity, while the frail neck--of which we shall speak in

connection with the fifth type--is always a sign of the physical frailty

which endangers life. The thickness of his neck may sometimes give you

the impression that the Muscular head is small but if you will look

again you will see that it is normal for his bodily size.

His Square Face

¶ Looking at him from directly in front you will see that the Muscular's

face gives you an impression of squareness. (See Chart 6) You will also

notice that his side-head, cheeks and jaw run up and down in such a way

as to give him a right-angled face.

His Square Jaw

¶ A broad jaw is another characteristic of this type. Not only is it

square, looked at from the front, but you are pretty sure to note that

the jaw bones, as they proceed downward under the ear, tend to make a

right-angled turn at the corners instead of a rounded curve.

These dimensions tend to give the whole lower part of the Muscular's

face a box-like appearance. It is considered becoming to men but robs

its female owners of the delicate, pointed chin so much desired by


The Typical Muscular Hand

¶ Notice the hands of the people you meet and you will be surprised to

see how different and how interesting they are. Their size, shape and

structure as seen from the back of the hand are especially significant

and tell us much more about the individual's nature than the palm does.

Perhaps you have thought that a hand was just a hand. But there are

hands and hands. Each pure type has its own and no other is ever seen on

the extreme of that type.

The hand of the Muscular, like all the rest of his body, is built in a

series of squares. It runs out from the wrist and down in a straighter

line and tends to right angles. (See Chart 6)

The Square Fingers of This Type

¶ "Spatulate fingers"--meaning fingers that are square or paddle-shaped

at the tips--are sure indications of a decided muscular tendency.

He may have other types in combination but if his fingers are really

square--"sawed off at the ends" in such a way as to give them large

instead of tapering ends--that person has more than average muscularity

and the activities of his life will tend in the directions referred to

in this chapter.

The Manual Worker

¶ Musculars are the hand-workers of the world. They are the artisans,

craftsmen, the constructors and builders.

We all tend to use most those organs or parts of the body which are

largest and most highly developed. The Muscular's hand is

proportionately larger than the hand of any other type. It has more

muscle, that one element without which good hand work is impossible.

So it has followed inevitably that the manual work of the world is done

largely by Musculars. Their hands are also so much more powerful that

they do not tire easily.

The Hand of the Creative Artist

¶ "The artist's hand" and "the artistic hand" are phrases long used but

misused. Delicate tapering fingers were supposed in ancient times to

denote artistic ability. The frail curving hand was also supposed to be

a sign of artistic talent.

From the stage of old down to the movies of today the typical artist is

pictured with a slight, slender hand.

This tapering-fingered hand denotes a keen sense of artistic values; a

love of the esthetic, refined and beautiful; and real artistic

_appreciation_, but _not_ the ability to create.

The "Hand Arts"

¶ Before we explain this, kindly understand that we are speaking only of

those arts which require hand work--and not of such arts as singing,

dancing, or musical composition which could more properly be called

artistic activities. We are referring only to those arts which depend

for their creation upon the human hand--such as painting, architecture,

craftsmanship, cartooning, sculpture, violin, piano, etc.

_All these are created by square fingered people._

We are too much inclined to think of the products of these arts as being

created out of sheer artistic sense, artistic taste or artistic insight.

But a moment's reflection will show that every tangible artistic

creation is the result of unusual hand work combined with gifted head

work. Without a sure, strong, well-knit hand the ideas of the greatest

artists could never have materialized. The lack of such a hand explains

why the esthetic, the artistic-minded and the connoisseur do not

_create_ the beautiful things they _appreciate_.

Head and Hand Partners

¶ The hand must execute what the brain plans and it must be so perfect a

mechanism for this that it responds to the most elusive inspirations of

the artist. It must be a fifty per cent partner, else its owner will

never produce real art.

No type has this strong, sure, co-ordinated hand-machine to any such

degree as the Muscular.

The finger ends, which are of the utmost significance in the creation of

artistic things, must be fitted with well developed muscles of extreme

efficiency or the execution will fall short of the ideal pictured in the

artist's mind.

The pure Muscular type seldom makes an artist, for, after all, inspired

brain work is the other important element in the creation of art, and

this is the forte of the fifth type. A combination of the fifth type

with the Muscular makes most hand artists. A combination of the Muscular

and Thoracic makes most singers. Every hand artist will be found to have

spatulate-fingered hands--in short, muscular hands.

The hand of the famous craftsman, pianist, sculptor and painter, instead

of being more frail and delicate, is always larger and heavier than that

of the average person. Such a hand is a certain indication of the

muscular element in that individual's makeup.

His Powerful Movements

¶ Forceful, decisive movements also characterize this type. He is

inclined to go at even the most trivial things with as much force as if

the world depended on it.

Recently we were exhibiting a small pencil sharpener to a muscular

friend. It was so sharp that it performed its work without pressure. But

she took hold of it as if it were a piece of artillery and pushed the

pencil into it with all the force she had.

When we remonstrated smilingly--for her face and hands are

ultra-square--she said, "But I can't do anything lightly. I just

naturally put that much force into everything."

His Forceful Walk

¶ Heavy, powerful, forceful strides distinguish the walk of this type.

If he has but ten steps to go he will start off as if beginning an

around-the-world marathon.

You Hear Him Coming

¶ All Musculars notify people, by their walk, of their approach. They

are unconscious of this loud incisive tread, and most of them will be

surprised to read it here. But their friends will recognize it. The

chances are that they have often spoken of it amongst themselves.

The Loud Voice

¶ The "steam-calliope voice" belongs almost always to a Muscular. He

does his talking just as he does everything else--with all his might.

It is very difficult for the Muscular to "tone down" this powerful

voice. His long-suffering friends will testify to this characteristic.

His Stentorian Tones

¶ This loud voice is a serious social handicap to him. His only chance

of compensation for it lies in its use before juries, congregations or

large audiences.

It might be noted here that every great orator has been largely of this

type, and also that his fame came not alone from the things he said but

from the stentorian tones in which he said them.

Famous Male Singers

¶ Caruso, John McCormack and all other famous male singers had large

thoracic systems, but in every instance it was combined with a large

muscular development.

The Solid Sitter

¶ When a Muscular sits down he does it as he does everything--with

definiteness and force. He does not spill over as does the Alimentive

nor drape himself gracefully like the Thoracic, but planks himself as

though he meant business.

Activity His Keynote

¶ Because he is especially built for it the Muscular is more active than

any other type. Without muscles no organism could move itself from the

spot in which it was born.

Biology teaches us that the stomach was the first thing evolved. The

original one-call organism possessed but one function--digestion. As

life progressed it became necessary to send nutriment to those parts of

the organism not touched by the stomach.

For the purpose of reaching these suburbs there was involved the

circulatory or Thoracic system, and this gave rise, as we have seen in

the previous chapter, to the Thoracic type.

Movement and Development

¶ As time went on movement became necessary, full development not being

possible to any static organism. To meet this need muscles were evolved,

and organic life began to move.

It was only a wiggle at first, but that wiggle has grown till today it

includes every kind of labor, globe trotting and immigration.

The Muscular is fitted with the best traveling equipment of any type and

invariably lives a life whose main reactions express these things.

The Immigrant Muscular

¶ No matter what his work or play the Muscular will make more moves

during the course of a day than other types. He loves action because his

muscles, being over-equipped for it, keep urging him from within to do


As a result this type makes up most of the immigrants of the world.

Italians, Poles, Greeks, Russians, Germans and Jews are largely of this

type and these are the races furnishing the largest number of foreigners

in America.

Inertness Irks Him

¶ Shut up a Muscular and you destroy him. His big muscle system cries

out for something to do. He becomes restless, nervous and ill when

confined or compelled to be idle.

The Alimentive loves an easy time but the Muscular dislikes ease except

when exhausted. Even then it is almost impossible to stop him.

Must Be Doing Something

¶ "I can't bear to be doing nothing!" you often hear people say. Such a

person always has plenty of muscle. Musculars want to feel that they are

not wasting time. They must be "up and doing," accomplishing something.

If there is nothing near them that needs doing they are sure to go and

find something.

The Born Worker

¶ Work is second nature to this type. He really prefers it.

Everyone likes some kind of work when in the mood if it serves a purpose

or an ideal. But the Muscular likes work for its own sake--or rather for

the activity's sake.

Work palls on the Alimentive and monotony on the Thoracic, but leisure

is what palls on the Muscular. He may have worked ten years without a

vacation and he may imagine he wants a long one, but by the morning of

the third day you will notice he has found a piece of work for himself.

It may be nothing more than hanging the screen door, chopping the wood

or dusting the furniture, but it will furnish him with some kind of


Because he enjoys action for its own sake and because work is only

applied action, this type makes the best worker. He can be trusted to

work harder than any other type.

Require Less Watching

¶ It is no accident that the three-hundred-men gangs of foreign workmen

who dig ditches, tunnels and tubes, construct buildings, railroads and

cities work with fewer foremen and supervisors than are ordinarily

required to keep much smaller forces of other employees at their posts.

Seldom Unemployed

¶ For this reason the Muscular is seldom out of work. He is in demand at

the best current wages because he can be depended upon to "keep at it."

¶ While writing this book our windows overlook a public park in one of

America's one-million-population cities. Hundreds of unemployed men

sleep there day and night. Having occasion to pass through this park

daily for several months it has been interesting to note the types

predominating. Hardly one per cent belonged to the Muscular type.

Likes To Do Things

¶ Because he is such a hard worker this type gets a good deal of praise

and glory just as the fat people, who manage to get out of work, receive

a good deal of blame. Yet work is almost as pleasant to the Muscular as

leisure is to the Alimentive.

The Muscular's Pugnacity

¶ Fighters--those who really enjoy a scrap occasionally--are invariably

Musculars. Their square jaws--the sure sign of great muscularity--are

famous the world over and especially so in these days when war is once

more in fashion.

The next time you look at the front faces of Pershing, Haig, Hindenberg

or even that of your traffic policeman, note the extremely muscular face

and jaw. Combat or personal fighting is a matter of muscle-action. Being

well equipped for it this type actually enjoys it. That is why he is

oftener in trouble than any other type.

It was no accident that the phrase "big stick" was the slogan of an

almost pure Muscular.

Loves the Strenuous Life

¶ "The strenuous life" was another of Roosevelt's pet phrases and came

from the natural leanings of his type. The true Muscular is naturally

strenuous. Because we are prone to advise others to do what we enjoy

doing ourselves it was inevitable that so strenuous a man as T. R.

should advocate wholesale, universal and almost compulsory strenuosity.

We tell others to do certain things because "it will do you good" but

the real reason usually is that we like to do it ourselves.

The Acrobatic Type

¶ The next time you go to a vaudeville show get there in time for the

acrobatics and notice how all the participants are Musculars. If there

are any other types taking part please observe that they are secondary

to the acrobats--they catch the handkerchiefs or otherwise act as foils

for the real performers.

All the hard work in the act will be done by Musculars. You will find no

better examples of the short, stocky, well-knit pure Muscular than here.

You do not need to wait for another show to realize how true this is.

Recall the form and height of all the acrobats you have ever seen. You

will remember that there was not one who did not fit the description of

the pure Muscular given at the beginning of this chapter.

Acrobats Always Muscular

¶ We once had occasion to refer to this fact in a Human Analysis Class.

One member declared that just that week he had seen a very tall,

unmuscular man performing in an acrobatic act at the Orpheum.

Knowing that this was impossible, we offered a large reward to this

member if he were proven right. We sent to the theater and found the

acrobat in question. He had just finished his act and kindly consented

to come over.

He turned out to be a pure Muscular as we had stated. The class member's

mistake came from the fact that the acrobat appeared taller than he

really was. High platforms always give this illusion. Furthermore his

partner in the act was of diminutive height and the acrobat looked tall

and slender by contrast.

Why They Don't Do It

¶ To be an acrobat is the ambition of almost every boy. There have been

few who did not dream, while doing those stunts in the haymow on

Mother's broomstick, of the glory that should be theirs when they grew

up and performed in red tights for the multitudes.

Almost every boy has this ambition because he passes through a stage of

decided muscular development in his early years. But only those who were

born with much larger muscles than the average ever carry out their

dreams. The others soon develop girth or the "sitting still" habit to

the point where a cushioned seat in the first row of the parquet looks

much better.

Durability in Clothes

¶ Something that will wear well is what this type asks for when he drops

in to buy a suit. Musculars are not parsimonious nor stingy. Their

buying the most durable in everything is not so much to save money as

for the purpose of having something they do not need to be afraid to


Likes Heavy Materials

¶ This type likes heavy, stable materials. Whereas the Alimentive wants

comfortable clothes and the Thoracic distinctive ones the Muscular wants

wearable, "everyday" clothes.

He wants the materials to be of the best but he cares less for color

than the Thoracic. Quality rather than style and plainness rather than

prettiness are his standards in dress.

"Making over father's pants for Johnnie" is a job Muscular women have

excelled in and for which they have become famous. For this type of

mother not only sees to it that father's pants are of the kind of stuff

that won't wear out easily but she has the square, creative hand that

enjoys construction.

The Plain Dresser

¶ Simple dresses--blue serge, for instance--are the ones the Muscular

woman likes. This type cares little about clothes as ornamentation. He

is intent on getting his desires satisfied by DOING things, not by

looking them. He also resents the time and trouble that fashionable

dressing demands. No matter how much money this type has he will not be

inclined to extremes in dress. Musculars are not really interested in

clothes for clothes' sake. It is not that this type is unambitious. He

is extremely so, but he is so concentrated on "getting things done" that

he is likely to forget how he looks while doing them.

When a person of this type does take great pains with his clothes it is

always for a purpose, and not because he enjoys preening himself. There

is little of the peacock in the Muscular.

A Simple Soul

¶ Musculars are the most democratic of all the types. The Thoracic is a

natural aristocrat, and enjoys the feeling of a little innocent

superiority. But Musculars often refuse to take advantage of superior

positions gained through wealth or station, and are inclined to treat

everybody as an equal. It is almost impossible for this type, even

though he may have become or have been born a millionaire, to "lord it

over" servants or subordinates. He is given to backing democratic

movements of all kinds. This explains why Musculars constitute the large

majority in every radical group.

Humanness His Hobby

¶ Being "human" is an ideal to which this type adheres with almost

religious zeal. He likes the commonplace things and is never a follower

after "the thing" though he has no prejudices against it, as the fourth

type has.

An Everyday Individual

¶ The Muscular does not care for "show" and, except when essential to

the success of his aims, seldom does anything for "appearances."

He is not an easy-going companion like the Alimentive nor a

scintillating one like the Thoracic, but an everyday sort of person.

When in Trouble

¶ This type is not given to sliding out of difficulties like the

Alimentive nor to being temporarily submerged by them like the

Thoracic. He "stands up to them" and backs them down. When in trouble he

acts, instead of merely thinking.

The Most Practical Type

¶ "The Practicalist" is often used to describe this type. He is inclined

to look at everything from the standpoint of its practicality and is

neither stingy nor extravagant.

He Likes What Works

¶ "Will it work?" is the question this type puts to everything. If it

won't, though it be the most fascinating or the most diverting thing in

the world, he will take little interest in it.

This type depends mostly upon his own hands and head to make his fortune

for him, and is seldom lured into risking money on things he has not


The Natural Efficiency Expert

¶ The shortest, surest way is the one this type likes. He is not

inclined to fussiness. He insists on things being done in the most

efficient way and he usually does them that way himself. He is not an

easy man to work for, but quick to reward merit. The Muscular does not

necessarily demand money nor the things that money buys but he tries to

get the workable out of life.

The Property Owner

¶ This type likes to have a fair bank account and to give his children a

worth while training. He is less inclined to bedeck them with frills but

he will plan years ahead for their education.

These are not rigid parents like the fourth type, lenient like the

Alimentives, nor temperamental with their children like the Thoracics,

but practical and very efficient in their parenthood. They are very fond

of their children but do not "spoil" them as often as some of the other

types do.

They bring up their children to work and teach them early in life how to

do things. As a result, the children of this type become useful at an

early age and usually know how to earn a living if necessary.

Wants the Necessities

¶ The necessities of life are things this type demands and gets. Whereas

the Alimentive demands the comforts and the Thoracic the unusual, the

Muscular demands the essentials. He is willing to work for them, so he

usually succeeds.

He is not given to rating frills and fripperies as necessities but

demands the things everyday men or women need for everyday existence.

Naturally he goes after them with the same force he displays in

everything else.

His Heart and Soul in Things

¶ When some one shows great intensity of action directed toward a

definite end we often say "he puts his heart and soul into it." This

phrase is apropos of almost everything the Muscular does. He makes no

half-hearted attempts.

An Enthusiast

¶ "Enthusiasm does all things" said Emerson, and therein explained why

this type accomplishes so much. The reason back of the Muscular's

enthusiasm is interesting.

All emotions powerfully affect muscles. A sad thought flits through your

mind and instantly the muscles of your face droop and the corners of

your mouth go down. Hundreds of similar illustrations with which you are

already familiar serve to prove how close is the connection between

emotions and muscles. The heart itself is nothing more nor less than a

large, tough, leather-like muscle.

Possessing the best equipment for expressing emotion, the Muscular is

constantly and automatically using it.

Therefore he becomes an enthusiast over many things during the course of

his lifetime. This enthusiasm literally burns his way to the things he


The Plain Talker

¶ When deeply moved this type talks well. If the mental element is also

strong he can become a good public speaker for he will then have all the

qualifications--a powerful voice, human sympathy, democracy and


In private conversation he is inclined to use the verbal hammers too

much and to be too drastic in his statements, accusations, etc. But he

means what he tells you, no more, and usually not much less.

He avoids long words and complicated phrases even when well educated and

speaks with directness and decisiveness.


¶ "Straight from the shoulder" might be used to describe the method of

the pure Muscular in what he does and says. He does not deal in

furbelows, dislikes the superfluous and the superficial. He goes through

life over the shortest roads.

Likes the Common People

¶ Plain folks like himself are the kind this type prefers for friends.

He enjoys them immensely, but does not cultivate as large a number of

them as does the Thoracic, nor have as many "bowing acquaintances" as

the Alimentive.

Snubs the Snobs

¶ The snob is disliked by every one but is the especial aversion of this

type. Being so democratic himself and living his life along such

commonplace lines, he has no patience with people who imagine they are

better than others or who carry the air of superiority.

The only person therefore whom the Muscular is inclined to snub is the

snob. He is not overawed by him and enjoys "taking him down a peg,"

whenever he tries his high and mighty airs on him.

Defends the "Under Dog"

¶ Standing by the under dog is a kind of religion with this type. He

glories in fighting for the downtrodden. This explains why he is so

often a radical. Much of this vehemence in radicalism is due to the fact

that he feels he is getting even with the snobs of the world--the

plutocrats--when he furthers the causes of the proletariat.

Often on the Warpath

¶ To "have it out" with you is the first inclination of this type when

he becomes angry.

He is apt to say atrocious things and to exaggerate his grievances.

Everything must yield to his "dander" once it is up. Being possessed of

a highly developed fighting equipment, he is like a battleship, with

every gun in place, most of the time.

He is frequently in violent quarrels with his friends, and since he does

not recover from his anger quickly like the Thoracic, he often loses

them for life.

The Most Generous Friend

¶ When they like you the Musculars are the most abandoned in their

generosity of all the types. They "go the limit" for you, as the

Westerner says, and they go it with their money, time, love and


All types do this for short periods occasionally and for a very few

choice friends. But the Muscular often does it for people he scarcely

knows if they strike his fancy or appeal to him.

His heart and his home belong to the stranger almost as completely as to

his family, for he does not feel a stranger to any one. He feels from

the first moment, and acts, as though he had known you always.

This accounts for his democracy, for his success as an orator,

and--sometimes for his being "broke."

Not a Quick Forgiver

¶ But disappoint him in anything he considers vital and he does not

overlook it easily. He finds it especially difficult to forgive people

who take advantage of the generosity he so lavishly extends. But he does

not make his hate a life-long one, as the fourth type does.

With all his own giving to others he seldom takes much from others.

The Naturally Independent

¶ "Standing on his own legs" is a well-known trait of the Muscular.

Dependence is bred of necessity. This type being able to get for himself

most of the things he wants, rarely finds it necessary to call upon

others for assistance.

Love of self-government, plus fighting pluck, both of which are inherent

in the Muscular Irish race, are responsible for the long struggle for

their independence.

Likes Plain Foods

¶ "Meat and potatoes" are the favorite diet of the average American

Muscular. The Alimentive wants richness and sweetness in food, the

Thoracic wants variety and daintiness but the Muscular wants large

quantities of plain food.

The Alimentive specializes in desserts, the Thoracic in unusual dishes,

but the Muscular wants solid fare. He is so fond of meat it is

practically impossible for him to confine himself to a vegetable diet.

When He is in Moderate Circumstances

¶ The Muscular is most often found in moderate circumstances. He is

rarely far below or far above them. Most of the plain, simple, everyday

things he desires can be secured by people of average means. He does not

feel the necessity for becoming a millionaire to obtain comforts like

the Alimentive, nor for extravagances like the Thoracic.

When He is Rich

¶ Philanthropy marks the expenditures of this type whenever he is rich.

He does not spend as much of his money for possessions but enjoys

investing it in what he deems the real--that is, other human beings.

The most plain and durable things in furnishings, architecture and

service characterize the rich of this type in their homes.

The World's Work Done by Musculars

¶ Broadly speaking, the fat man manages the world, the florid man

entertains the world, and the muscular man does the work of the world.

He composes most of the day-laborers, the middle men, the manual and

mechanical toilers the world around, as we have stated before.

He could get out of his hard places into better paid ones if he did not

like activity so well, but lacking the love of ease and show he is

willing to work hard for the necessities of life.

Simple Habits

¶ The Muscular's nature does not demand the exciting, the gregarious or

the food-and-drink things that lead toward laxity.

He is seldom a dissipator. He likes to go to bed early, work hard and

make practical progress in his life.

He leads the simple and yet the most strenuous existence of any type.

Entertainment He Enjoys

¶ Plays about plain people, their everyday experiences, hopes and fears

are the kind that interest this type most.

The "problem play" of a decade ago was a prime favorite with him. He

likes everything dealing with these everyday commonplace affairs with

which he is most familiar.

He frequently goes to serious lectures--something the pure Alimentive

always avoids--and he especially enjoys them if they deal with the

problem of the here and now.

He cares little for comic opera, vaudeville or revues because he feels

they serve no practical purpose and get him nowhere. This type does not

attend the theater merely to be amused. He goes for light on his

everyday experiences and usually considers time wasted that is spent

solely on entertainment.

Music He Likes

¶ Band music, stirring tunes and all music with "go" to it appeals to

this type.


¶ True stories, news and the sport page are the favorite newspaper

reading of the Muscular. He does not take to sentimental stories so much

as the Alimentive, nor to adventure so much as the Thoracic but sticks

to practical subjects almost exclusively.

Being active most of his waking hours, and strenuously active at that,

the Muscular is often too tired at night to read anything.

His Favorite Sports

¶ The most violent sports are popular with this type. Football,

baseball, handball, tennis, rowing and pugilism are his preferences. All

experts in these lines are largely Muscular.

Physical Assets

¶ His wonderful muscular development, upon which depends so much of

life's happiness--since accomplishment is measured so largely

thereby--is the greatest physical asset of this type. With it he can

accomplish almost anything of which his mind can conceive.

He is capable of endless effort, does not tire easily, and because of

his directness makes his work count to the utmost of his mental


Physical Liabilities

¶ A tendency to overwork is the chief physical pitfall of this type. The

disease to which he is most susceptible is rheumatism. But owing to his

love of activity he exercises more than any other type and thus

forestalls many diseases.

Social Assets

¶ His generosity is the strongest social asset of the Muscular. He is

usually straightforward and sincere and thereby gains the confidence of

those who meet him.

Social Liabilities

¶ His loud voice and his plain ways are the disadvantages under which

this type labors in social intercourse. He needs polishing and is not

inclined to take it. His pugnacity is also a severe drawback.

Emotional Assets

¶ Understanding, enthusiasm and warmth of heart are the emotional

qualities which help to make him the public leader he so often is. These

have made him the "born orator," the radical and the reformer of all


Emotional Liabilities

¶ His tendency to anger and combat are shackles that seriously handicap

him. Many times these lose him the big opportunities which his splendid

traits might obtain for him.

Business Assets

¶ Efficiency and willingness to work hard and long are the greatest

business assets of this type.

Business Liabilities

¶ Pugnacity over trifles costs the average Muscular many business

chances. He has to fight out every issue and while he is doing it the

other fellow closes the deal.

He is inclined to argue at great length. This helps him as a lawyer or

speaker but it hurts him in business. Curbing his combativeness in

business should be one of his chief aims.

Domestic Strength

¶ Practical protection for the future is the greatest gift of the

average Muscular to his family. He is not as lenient with his children

as is the Alimentive nor as effusive as the Thoracic, but he usually

lays by something for their future.

Domestic Weakness

¶ Cruel, angry words do the Muscular much harm in his family life. They

cause his nearest and dearest to hold against him the resentments that


Should Aim At

¶ Taking more frequent vacations, relaxing each day, and curbing his

pugnacity should be the special aims of this type.

Should Avoid

¶ Superficial and quarrelsome people, all situations requiring pretence,

and everything that confines and restricts his physical activity should

be avoided by this type.

Strongest Points

¶ Democracy, industry and great physical strength are the strongest

points of this type.

Weakest Points

¶ Inclination to overwork and to fight constitute the Muscular's two

weakest links.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

¶ Don't put on airs nor expect him to when you are meeting this type

socially. Be straightforward and genuine with him if you would win him.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ Remember, this type is inclined to be efficient and democratic and you

had better be the same if you wish to succeed with him in business.

He is intensely resentful of the man who tries to put anything over on

him; and demands efficiency. So when you promise him a thing see to it

that you deliver the goods and for the price stated. He does not mind

paying a good price if he knows it in the beginning, but beware of

raising it afterwards. The Muscular is serious in business, not a

jollier like the Alimentive, nor a thriller like the Thoracic, and he

wants you to be the same.

_Remember, the chief distinguishing marks of the Muscular, in the order

of their importance, are LARGE, FIRM MUSCLES, A SQUARE JAW and SQUARE

HANDS. Any person who has these is largely of the Muscular type, no

matter what other types may be included in his makeup._


The Osseous Type

"The Stayer"

Men and women in whom the Osseous or bony framework of the body is more

highly developed than any other system are called the Osseous type.

This system consists of the bones of the body and makes what we call the


Just as the previous systems were developed during man's biological

evolution for purposes serving the needs of the organism--first, a

stomach-sack, then a freight system in the form of arteries to carry the

food to remoter parts of the body, and later muscles with which to move

itself about--so this bony scaffolding was developed to hold the body

upright and better enable it to defend and assert itself.

[Illustration: 7 Osseous "the stayer"]

Man is a creature who, in spite of his height, walks erect. He can so do

only by means of the support given him by his bony framework. The

human body is like a tall building--the muscles are like the mortar and

plaster, the bones are like the steel framework around which everything

else is built and without which the structure could not stand upright.

How to Know Him

¶ Prominent ankles, wrists, knuckles and elbows are sure signs that such

an individual has a large osseous or bony element in his makeup.

When you look at any person you quickly discern whether fat, bone or

muscle predominates in his construction. If fat predominates he leans

toward the Alimentive, no matter what other types he may have in

combination; if firm, well-defined muscles are conspicuous, he is

largely Muscular; but if his bones are _proportionately large for his

body_ he has much of the Osseous type in his makeup.

The "Raw-Boned" Man

¶ "Raw-boned" exactly describes the appearance of the extreme Osseous.

(See Chart 7)

Such a man is a contrast to others in any group and a figure with which

all of us are familiar. But that his inner nature differs as widely

from others as his external appearance differs from theirs is something

only recently discovered.

As we proceed through this chapter you will be interested to note how

every trait attributed to this type applies with absolute accuracy to

every extremely raw-boned, angular person you have ever known. You will

also notice how these traits have predominated in every person whose

bones were large for his body.

Though this type was the last to be classified by science it is the most

extreme of them all.

Physical Rigidity

¶ An impression of physical rigidity is given by the extreme Osseous.

Such a man or woman looks stable, unchanging, immovable--as though he

could take a stand and keep to it through thick and thin.

So vividly do very tall, angular, raw-boned people convey this

impression that they are seldom approached by beggars, barked at by

street vendors, or told to "step lively."

His Size Looks Formidable

¶ The power of his physique is evident to all who look at him. The

strength indicated by his large joints, angular hands and general bulk

intuitively warns others to let this kind of person alone.

He is therefore unmolested for the most part, whether he walks down the

streets of his home town or wanders the byways of dangerous vicinities.

His Ruggedness

¶ This type also looks rugged. He reminds us of "the rugged Rockies." He

appears firm, fixed, impassive--as though everything about him was


Externals are not accidental; they always correspond to the internal

nature in every form of life. And it is not accidental that the Osseous

looks all of these things. He is all of them as definitely as they can

be expressed in human nature.

The Steady Man

¶ Of all human types the Osseous is the most dependable and reliable.

The phrases, "that man is steady," "never flies off the handle," "always

the same," etc., are invariably used concerning those of more than

average bony structure.

Immovability His Keynote

¶ The keynote of the bony man's whole nature--mental, physical and

moral--is immovability.

Once he settles into a place of any kind--a town, a home, or even a

chair--he is disinclined to move. He does not settle as quickly as other

types but when he does it is for a longer stay.

Think how different he is from others in this psychological trait and

how it coincides exactly with his physiological structure.

The fat man lets you make temporary dents in his plans just as you make

them in a piece of fat meat. But the bony man is exactly the opposite,

just as bone is difficult to twist, or turn, or alter in any way. It

takes a long time and much effort--but once it is changed it is there

for good.

The "Six-Footer"

¶ Because any individual's height is determined by his skeleton, extreme

tallness is a sign of a larger than average bony structure. The extreme

Osseous is therefore tall.

But you must remember that large joints are more significant than

height. Even when found in short people they indicate a large osseous


Large Bones for His Body

¶ So bear in mind that any person whose _bones are large for his body_

is somewhat of the Osseous type, regardless of whether he is short or

tall and regardless of how much fat or muscle he may have. The

large-jointed person when fat is an Osseous-Alimentive. A large-jointed

man of muscle would be an Osseous-Muscular.

The "Small Osseous"

¶ A very short person then may be predominantly Osseous if his bones are

proportionately large for his body. Such an individual is called a

"Small Osseous."

A head that is high for his body and inclines to be straight up and down

goes with the extreme Osseous type. (See Chart 8) It does not resemble a

sphere like the Alimentive, is not kite-shaped like the Thoracic, nor

square like the Muscular. It is higher than any of the others, stands on

a longer, more angular neck, and his "Adam's Apple" is usually in


The Pioneer Type

¶ Like each of the other types, the Osseous is a result of a certain

environment. Rigorous, remote regions require just such people, and

these finally gave rise to this stoical nature. The outposts of

civilization are responsible for his evolution.

[Illustration 8: A: Typical OSSEOUS face B: Typical OSSEOUS hand]

Pioneering, with its hardship, its menacing cold and dearth of comforts,

in far countries at last produced a man who could stand them, who could

"live through" almost anything and still dominate his surroundings.

Not a "Softie"

¶ The Osseous does not give way to his feelings. He keeps his griefs,

sorrows, ambitions and most of his real opinions to himself. He is the

farthest from a "softie" of any type.

If you desire to know at once what kind of person the Osseous is, put

the Alimentive and Thoracic types together and mix them thoroughly. The

Osseous is the _opposite_ of that mixture.

Each and every trait he possesses is one whose exact opposite you will

find in one or the other of these first two types.

Consistency in Types

¶ As we go on in this chapter you will see why all kinds of people make

up the world, for Nature has outdone herself in the distinctions between

the five human types.

Each type is made up of certain groups of traits with which we have come

in contact all our lives but which we have never classified; and each

"set" of traits comprising a type has a consistency which nothing less

than Mother Nature could have produced. You will be interested to see

how accurate are the statements concerning each type and how they are

proven again and again in every type you associate with.

Guesswork is no longer necessary in the sizing up of strangers. You can

know them better than their mothers know them if you will get these

nutshells of facts clearly in your mind and then _apply_ them.

His High Cheek Bones

¶ Cheek bones standing higher than the average are always indicative

either of a large Thoracic or a large Osseous element.

If the distance between the cheeks is so wide as to make this the widest

section of the face, it is probable that the person is more Thoracic

than Osseous. But if his face is narrow across the cheek bones, and

especially if it runs perpendicularly down to the jaw-corners from that

point instead of tapering, the person is large of the Osseous type.

Built on the Oblong

¶ An oblong is what the Osseous brings to mind. His body outlines

approximate the oblong--a squareness plus length. He is full of right

angles and sharp corners. (See Chart 7)

His face is built on the oblong (See Chart 8) and if you will notice the

side-head of the next Osseous man you meet you will see that even a side

view presents more nearly the appearance of the oblong than of any other

geometrical figure.

The Oblong Hand

¶ "The gnarled hand" well describes that of the Osseous. The hand

outlines of this type also approximate the oblong. (See Chart 8) It runs

straight down instead of tapering when the fingers are held close


The hand of the Osseous matches his body, head and face. It is bony,

angular, large-jointed and as rigid as it looks. The inflexibility of

his hand is always apparent in his handshake.

Knotty Fingers

¶ Knotty fingers characterize the hands of this type. Their irregular

appearance comes from the size of the joints which are large, in keeping

with all the joints running throughout his organism.

Everything in one of Nature's creatures matches the other parts.

Agassiz, the great naturalist, when given the scale of a fish could

reconstruct for you the complete organism of the type of fish from which

it came. Give a tree-leaf to a botanist and he will reconstruct the

size, shape, structure and color of the tree back of it. He will

describe to you its native environment and its functions; what its bark,

blossoms and branches look like and what to do to make it grow.

No Guesswork in Nature

¶ Nature has no accidents. With her everything is organized, everything

has a purpose, and every part of a thing, inside and out, matches the

whole. So the hand of the Osseous and the face of the Osseous match the

body and head.

This is also true of every other type. The Alimentive has small, fat,

dimpled hands and feet like his body; the Thoracic has tapering hands

and feet to match his face and body; the Muscular's body, hands and feet

are all square; but the Osseous has a bony body, so his hands and feet

are equally bony.

The Man of Slow Movements

¶ "He is too slow for me," you have heard some one say of another.

Perhaps you heard it said today. Review the outward appearance of all

the people you know who have this reputation, from those of your

earliest childhood down to that person of whom it was spoken today--and

you will find that every one of them resembled the bony type we have

just been describing.

Look back and call to mind the appearance of all the "rapid" ones and

you will find that in every case they possessed high color, high chests

or high-bridged noses. Take another look for the easy-going amenable

ones, and see how plump they all were!

The Straight-Laced

¶ None of these things "just happened." They are the result of the law

of cause and effect. The connection between external and internal traits

is becoming clearer every day and reveals some very unexpected things.

One that has been discovered very recently is that the straight-faced

are the straight-laced. Notice for yourself and you will find that every

person who is really "straight-laced" is a person with a straight

face--that is, a face with straighter up-and-down lines than the


Think back over those you have known who come under this heading and

you will find no actually round-faced people amongst them.

No matter how sanctimonious, religious or correct a person may act when

his position or the occasion demands it, if he has a round, "moon" face

he is not really straight-laced at heart. Any one who knows him well

enough to know his real nature will tell you so.

The Naturally Conventional

¶ The "born Puritan," the ascetic, and the naturally conventional person

is, on the other hand, invariably an individual of more severe facial


This person may be in an unconventional position; your straight-faced,

severe-lined person may be a gambler, a boot-legger, or follow any other

line defying the conventions; but he is at heart a conservative after

all. For instance, you will always find, when you know him, that he does

things in a way that is very conventional to him. That is, he has

decided standards, rules, habits and requirements, and he clings rigidly

to them in the transaction of his business, regardless of how lax the

business itself may be.

"A certain way of doing things" means as much to him, at heart, as it

means little to the circular-faced people.

Systematic and Methodical

¶ "A place for everything and everything in its place" is a rule

preached and practised by people of this type.

The Osseous person does not mislay his things. He knows so well where

they are that he can "go straight to them in the dark." Such a man is

careful of his tools and keeps his work-bench or desk "shipshape." A

woman of this type is an excellent housekeeper. Her sewing basket,

dresser drawers and pantry shelves are all systematically arranged in

apple-pie order.

The typical New England housewife, who washes on Mondays, irons on

Tuesdays and bakes on Saturdays for forty years, is a direct descendant

of the Puritans, most of whom belong to this bony, pioneering type.

The Stiff Sitter

¶ Extremely Osseous people are inclined to be somewhat formal in their

movements. They make fewer motions than any other type. They do not

wave their hands or arms about when talking and are almost devoid of

gesticulation of any kind. They sit upright instead of slumping down in

their chairs, except when tall and lanky, and usually prefer

"straight-backs" to rockers.

The Osseous Walk

¶ The extremely raw-boned person has also a formal gait. His walk, like

all his other movements, is inclined to be deliberate and somewhat


¶ Nothing about the five types is more interesting than the walk which

distinguishes each. The Alimentive undulates or rolls along; the

Thoracic is an impulsive walker, and the Muscular is forceful in his

walk. But the Osseous walks mechanically, deliberately, and refuses to

hurry or speed up.

The Naturally Poised

¶ The Osseous has more natural poise than any other type.

He is not impressionable, excitable or arousable. Things do not "stir

him up" as they do other people. He is more self-contained,

self-controlled and self-sufficient than any other. He is not easily

carried off his feet and seldom yields to impulse. It is difficult to

get him to do anything on the spur of the moment. He usually has his

evenings, Sundays and vacations all planned in advance and won't change

his schedule.

Not Given to "Nerves"

¶ Literally as well as figuratively the Osseous is not a man of

"nerves." Every fiber of his being is less susceptible to outside

stimuli than that of other types. In this he is the exact opposite of

the Thoracic whose nerves, as we have pointed out, are so finely

organized that he is hypersensitive.

Resists Change

¶ Osseous people do not change anything, from their hair dress to their

minds, any oftener than necessary. When they do, it is for what they

consider overpoweringly good reasons.

These people are not flighty. They have their work, their time and their

lives laid out systematically and do not allow trivialities to upset

them. They take a longer time to deliberate on a proposed line of

action, but once they have made a decision, adhere to it with much

greater tenacity than any other type.

The Constant

¶ People of this type are not fickle nor flirtatious. They love few;

but once having become enamored are not easily turned aside. It is this

type that remains true to one love through many years, sometimes for


The Implacable

¶ The Osseous are not prone to sudden outbursts of temper. But they have

the unbending kind when it is aroused.

Never forgiving and never forgetting is a trait of these people as

contrasted with the Thoracic.

The Alimentive avoids those he does not like and forgets them because it

is too much bother to hate; the Thoracic flames up one moment and

forgives the next; the Muscular takes it out in a fight then and there,

or argues with you about it.

But the Osseous despises, hates and loathes--and keeps on for years

after every one else has forgotten all about it. The "rock-bound

Puritan" type, as stony as the New England land from which it gets its

living, is always bony. The implacable father who turns his child away

from home, with orders "never to darken his door again," always has a

lot of bone in his structure. Those who refuse to be softened into

forgiveness by the years are always of this type.

Not Adaptable

¶ It is difficult for the Osseous to "fit in." He is not adaptable and

in this is once again the opposite of the Thoracic. It is impossible for

him to adjust himself quickly to people or places.

Because he is unyielding, unbending and unadjustable he is called "sot

in his ways."

He should not be misjudged for this inadaptability, however, for it is

as natural to him as smoothness is to the Alimentive and impulsiveness

to the Thoracic. He is made that way and is no more to blame for it than

you are for having brown eyes instead of blue.

The One-Track Man

¶ "Single-track minds" are characteristic of this type. They get an idea

or an attitude and it is there to stay. They think the same things for

many years and follow a few definite lines of action most of their


But it is to be remembered in this connection that this type often

accomplishes more through his intensive concentration than more

versatile types. While they follow many by-paths in search of their goal

the Osseous sticks to the main track.

The Born Specialist

¶ "This one thing I do," is a motto of the Osseous. They are the least

versatile of any type and do not like to jump from one kind of work to


They prefer to do one thing at a time, do it well and finish it before

starting anything else. Because of this the Osseous stars

in specialities.

Dislikes Many Irons in the Fire

¶ The man who likes many irons in the fire is never an Osseous. To have

more than one problem before him at one time makes him irritable, upset

and exasperated.

The Most Dependable Type

¶ The unchangingness which handicaps the Osseous in so many ways is

responsible for one very admirable trait. That trait is dependability.

The Osseous is reliable. He can be taken at his word more often than any

other type, for he lives up to it with greater care.

Always on Time

¶ When an Osseous person says, "I will meet you at four o'clock at the

corner of Main and Market," he will arrive at Main and Market at _four_

o'clock. He will not come straggling along, nor plead interruptions, nor

give excuses. He will be on the exact spot at the exact hour.

In this he is again a contrast to the first two types. An Alimentive man

will roll into the offing at a quarter, or more likely, a half hour past

the time, smilingly apologize and be so naive you forgive and let it go

at that.

The Thoracic will arrive anywhere from five after four to six o'clock,

drown you in a thrilling narrative of just how it all happened, and

never give you a chance to voice your anger till he has smoothed it all

out of you.

An Exacting Man

¶ But the Osseous is disdainful of such tactics and you had better

beware of using them on him. He is dependable himself and demands it of

others--a little trait all of us have regarding our own particular


Likes Responsibility

¶ Responsibility, if it does not entail too many different kinds of

thought and work, is enjoyed by the Osseous.

He can be given a task, a job, a position and he will attend to it.

Entrust him with a commission of any kind, from getting you a certain

kind of thread to discovering the North Pole, and he will come pretty

near carrying it out, if he undertakes it.

Finishes What He Starts

If an Osseous decides to do a piece of work for you you can go ahead and

forget all about it. No need to advise, urge, watch, inspire, coax and

cajole him to keep him at it. He prefers to keep at a thing if he starts

it himself. You may have to hurry him but you will not have to watch him

in order to know he is sticking to his task. This type starts few things

but he brings those few to a pretty successful conclusion.

The Martyr of the Ages

¶ "Died for a cause" has been said of many people, but those people have

in every known instance been possessed of a larger-than-average bony


¶ The pure Alimentive seldom troubles his head about causes. The

Thoracic is the type that lives chiefly for the pleasure of the moment

and the adventures of life. The Muscular fights hard and works hard for

various movements.

But it is the Osseous who dies for his beliefs.

It is the Osseous or one who is largely of this type who languishes in

prison through long years, refusing to retract.

He is enabled to do this because the ostracism, jibes and criticism with

which other types are finally cowed, have little effect upon him. On the

contrary, opposition of any kind whets his determination and makes him

keep on harder than ever.

Takes the Opposite Side

¶ "If you want him to do a thing, tell him to do the opposite," is a

well-known rule supposed to work with certain kinds of people.

You have wondered why it sometimes worked and sometimes didn't, but it

is no mystery to the student of Human Analysis.

When it worked, the person you tried it on was an Osseous or one largely

osseous in type; and when it didn't he was of some other type.

"Contrary?" complained a man of a bony neighbor recently, "Contrary is

his middle name."

"I am open to conviction but I would like to see the man who could

convince me!" is always said by a man whose type you will be sure to


An "Againster"

¶ "I don't know what it is but I'm against it," is the inside mental

attitude of the extremely raw-boned, angular man or woman.

They often, unconsciously, refrain from making a decision about a thing

till the other fellow makes his. That settles it; they take the other


Think back over your school-days and call to mind the visage and bodily

shape of the boy who was always on the opposite side, who just naturally

disagreed, who "stood out" against the others. He was a bony lad every


Remember the "Fatty" with a face like a full moon? Did he do such

things? He did not. He was amenable, easy-going, good natured, and

didn't care how the discussion came out, so long as it didn't delay the

lunch hour.

Remember the boy or girl who had the pick of the school for company

whenever there was a party, who danced well and was so sparkling that

you always felt like a pebble competing against a diamond when they were

around? That boy or girl had a high chest, or high color, or a

high-bridged nose--and usually all three.

But the one you couldn't persuade, who couldn't be won over, who

refused to give in, who held up all the unanimous votes till everybody

was disgusted with him, and who rather gloried in the distinction--that

boy had big bones and a square jaw--the proof that he was a combination

of the Osseous and Muscular types.

The Human Balance Wheel

¶ To keep the rest of the world from running away with itself, to

prevent precipitous changes in laws, customs and traditions, has always

been one of the functions performed for society by the bony people.

These people are seldom over-persuaded, and being able to retain a

perpendicular position while the rest of the world is being swayed this

way and that, they act as society's balance wheel.

The Osseous changes after a while, but it is a long while, and by the

time he does, the rest of the world has marched on to something new

which he opposes in its turn.

Wears Same Style Ten Years

¶ Even the clothes worn by this type tell the same story. Styles may

come and styles may go, but the Osseous goes on forever wearing the

same lines and the same general fashions he wore ten years before. If

you will recall the men who continued wearing loose, roomy suits long

after the "skin-tight" fashions came in, or the women who kept to long,

full skirts when short ones were the vogue you will note that every one

of them had large joints or long faces.

Bony people find a kind of collar or hat that just suits, and to that

hat and that collar they will stick for twenty years!

Disdains the Fashions

¶ In every city, neighborhood and country crossroads there is always

somebody who defies the styles of today by wearing the styles of ten

years ago.

Every such person is a bony individual--never under any circumstances a

moon-faced, round-bodied one. In every case you will find that his face

is longer, his nose is longer, or his jaw and hands are longer than the

average--all Osseous indications.

When He is Rich

¶ The bony man's adherence to one style or to one garment is not

primarily because he wishes to save money, though saving money is an

item that he never overlooks. It is due rather to his inability to

change anything about himself in accordance with outside influence until

a long time has elapsed.

Doesn't Spend Money Lavishly

¶ The Osseous is, as stated at the head of this chapter, a "stayer" and

this applies to everything he wears, thinks, says, believes, and to the

way he carries on every activity of his life.

No matter how rich he may be he will not buy one kind of car today and

another tomorrow, nor one house this week and another in six weeks.

He uses his money, as all of us do, to maintain his type-habits and to

give freer rein to them, not to change them to any extent. This type

likes sameness. He likes to "get acquainted" with a thing. He never

takes up fads and is the most conservative of all types. Unlike the

Thoracic, he avoids extremes in everything and dislikes anything

savoring of the "showy" or conspicuous.

Not a Social Star

¶ Because he dislikes display, refuses to yield to the new fangled

fashions of polite society and finds it hard to adapt himself to people,

the man of this type is seldom a social success.

He is the least of a "ladies' man" of all the types. The Osseous woman

is even less disposed to social life than the Osseous man because the

business and professional demands, which compel men of this type to

mingle with their fellows, are less urgent with her.

Likes the Same Food

¶ The same "yesterday, today and forever" is the kind of food preferred

by this type. He seldom orders anything new. The tried and true things

he has eaten for twenty-five years are his favorites and it is almost

impossible to win him away from them. "I have had bread and milk for

supper every Sunday night for thirty years," a bony man said to us not

long ago.

Means What He Says

¶ The Osseous does not flatter and seldom praises. Even when he would

like to, the words do not come easily. But when he does give you a

compliment you may know he means it. He is incisive and specific--a

little too much so to grace modern social intercourse where so much is


A Man of Few Words

¶ A man of few words is always and invariably a man whose bones are

large for his body. The fat man uses up a great many pleasant, suave,

merry, harmless words; the Thoracic inundates you with conversation; the

Muscular argues, declares and states; but the Osseous alone is sparing

of his words.

The Hoarder

¶ Bony people are never lavish with anything. They do not waste anything

nor throw anything away. These are the people who save things and store

them away for years against the day when they may find some use for

them. When they do part with them it is always to pass them on "where

they will do some one some good."

Careful of Money

¶ You never saw a stingy fat man in your life. Imagine a

two-hundred-pound miser! Neither have you ever seen a really stingy man

who was red-faced and high-chested. Nor have you ever found a real

Muscular who was a "tightwad."

But you have known some people who were pretty close with their money.

And every one of them was inclined to boniness.

When He is Poor

¶ Bony men are seldom "broke" for they are more careful of expenditures

than any other type. Even when they receive small salaries this type of

person always has something laid by. But the extreme Osseous never makes

a million. The same caution which prevents his spending much money also

prevents the plunges that make big money.

¶ The Osseous cares more for money than any one else. This is what has

enabled him, when combined with some other type, to be so successful in

banking--a business where you risk the other man's money, not your own.

The extreme Osseous is never lax or extravagant with his money no matter

how much he has. He never believes in paying any more for a thing than

is necessary. Take note of the men who carry purses for silver instead

of letting their change lie loose in their pockets. They are bony every

time! Fat people and florid people are the ones who let their greenbacks

fall on the floor while paying the cashier!

Fear of the Future

¶ "The rainy day" doesn't worry the fat people or the florid ones, but

it is seldom out of the consciousness of the bony men and women. So they

cling to their twenty-dollar-a-week clerkships for years because they

are afraid to tackle anything entailing risk.

Pays His Bills

¶ "I had rather trust a bony man than any other kind," is what the

credit experts have told us. "Other things being equal, he is the most

reliable type in money matters, and pays his bills more promptly."

¶ The bony man is one who seldom approaches the credit man, however. He

usually has enough to get the few things he really wants and if not he

waits till he has.

Extremely bony husbands give their wives smaller allowances in

proportion to their total income than any other type, and because they

are systematic themselves they are more likely to ask for reports and

itemizations as to where it goes.

The fat husbands and the florid husbands are the ones who give their

wives their last cent and never ask what becomes of it.

The Repressed Man

¶ The Osseous man or woman is always somewhat repressed. Unlike the

Thoracic, who uncorks and bubbles like a champagne bottle, he keeps the

lid on his feelings.

Bony people are always more reticent than others. They invariably tell

less of their private or personal affairs. One may live across the hall

from a bony man for years without knowing much about him. He is as

secretive as the Thoracic is confiding and as guarded as the Alimentive

is naive.

Loyal to His Few Friends

¶ "Once your friend always your friend" can be said about the Osseous

oftener than any other type.

¶ The Osseous does not make friends easily and is not a "mixer" but

keeps his friends for many years. He "takes to" very few people but is

exceedingly loyal to those of his choice.

The "Salt of the Earth"

¶ People of the Osseous type say little, they do little for you and they

do not gush--but they are always there when you need them and "always

the same." They write few letters to you when away, and use few words

and little paper when they do. They are likely to fill every page, to

write neatly, to waste no margins and to avoid flourishes. Their letters

seldom require an extra stamp.

Plans Ahead

Foresight, laying plans far into the future, and keeping an eye out for

breakers ahead, financially and otherwise, are tendencies which come

natural to the Osseous.

He does not like to wait until the last moment to do a thing. He

dislikes unexpectedness and emergencies of any kind. He is always

prepared. For instance a bony person will think out every move of a long

journey before boarding his train. Weeks in advance he will have the

schedule marked and put away in his coat pocket--and he knows just which

coat he is going to wear too!

The Longest Lived

¶ The Osseous lives longer than any other type, for two reasons. The

first is that his lack of "nerves" saves him from running down his

batteries. He seldom becomes excited and does not exhaust himself in

emotional orgies.

The second is that he habitually under-eats--usually because he does not

care so much for food as the first three types, but quite often because

he prefers to save the money.

People He Dislikes

¶ The bony man does not like people who try to speed him up, hurry him,

or make him change his habits. Flashy people irritate him. But his

worst aversions are the people who try to dictate to him. This type can

not be driven. The only way to handle him is to let him think he is

having his own way.

Likes the Submissive

¶ Amenable people who never interfere with him yet lend themselves to

his plans, desires and eccentricities are the favorites of this type.

Diseases He is Most Susceptible To

¶ No diseases can be said to strike the Osseous more frequently than any

other type.

But moodiness, fear--especially financial fear--long-sustained hatreds

and resentments, and lack of change are indirectly responsible for those

diseases which bring about the end, in the majority of cases.

Music He Likes

¶ Martial, classical music and ballads are favorites with the Osseous.

Old-time tunes and songs appeal to him strongly.

Jazz, which the Alimentive loves, is disliked by most bony people.

Reading He Prefers

¶ Only a few kinds of reading, a few favorite subjects and a few

favorite authors are indulged in by this type.

He will read as long as twenty-five years on one subject, master it and

ignore practically everything else. When he becomes enamored of an

author he reads everything he writes.

Reading that points directly to some particular thing he is really

interested in makes up many of his books and magazines.

He is the kind of man who reads the same newspaper for half a century.

Physical Assets

¶ His great endurance, capacity for withstanding hardship, indifference

to weather, and his sane, under-eating habits are the chief physical

assets of this type.

Physical Liabilities

¶ This type has no physical characteristics which can be called

liabilities except the tendency to chronic diseases. Even in this he

runs true to form--slow to acquire and slow to cure.

His Favorite Sports

¶ Hiking and golf are the favorite sports of this type because these

demand no sudden spurts of energy. He likes them because they can be

carried on with deliberation and independence. He does not care for any

sport involving team work or quick responses to other players. Except

when combined with the Thoracic type he especially avoids tennis.

Favorite Entertainments

¶ Serious plays in which his favorite actors appear are the

entertainments preferred by this type. He cares least of all for


Social Assets

¶ The Osseous has no traits which can properly be called social assets.

His general uprightness comes nearest to standing him in good stead

socially, however.

Social Liabilities

¶ Stiffness, reticence, physical awkwardness and the inability to pose

or to praise are the chief social handicaps of this type.

Emotional Assets

¶ The Osseous is not emotional and can not be said to possess any assets

that are purely emotional.

Emotional Liabilities

¶ The lack of emotional fervor and enthusiasm prevents this type from

impressing others.

Business Assets

¶ Keeping his word, orderliness and system are the chief business assets

of this type.

Business Liabilities

¶ A disinclination to mix, the inability to adapt himself to his patrons

and a tendency to hold people too rigidly to account are the business

handicaps of the Osseous.

Domestic Strength

¶ Constancy and faithfulness are his chief domestic assets.

Domestic Weaknesses

¶ Tightness with money, a tendency to be too exacting and dictatorial,

and to fail to show affection are the things that frequently prevent

marriage for the Osseous and endanger it when he does marry.

Should Aim At

¶ The Osseous should aim at being more adjustable to people and to his

environment in general. He should try to take a greater interest in

others and then _show_ it.

Should Avoid

¶ Indifference and the display of it, solitude and too few interests are

things the Osseous needs to avoid.

His Strong Points

¶ Dependability, honesty, economy, faithfulness and his capacity for

finishing what he starts are the strongest points of this type.

His Weakest Points

¶ Stubbornness, obstinacy, slowness, over-cautiousness, coldness and a

tendency to stinginess are the weakest links in people of the extreme

Osseous type.

How to Deal with this Type Socially

¶ There is little to be done with the Osseous when you meet him socially

except to let him do what he wants to do.

Don't interfere with him if you want him to like you.

How to Deal with this Type in Business

¶ As an employee, give him responsibility and then let him alone to do

it his way.

Then keep your hands off.

Don't give him constant advice; don't try to drive him.

Let him be as systematic as he likes.

When dea