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5G System Overview



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[Music]

hello and welcome to a couple of

fantastic hours of 5g in the form of 5g

system overview my name is Martin and I

will be the teacher for these fantastic

hours hopefully and we will be using our

fold outs with the colored pens and the

big papers and perhaps the ruler so I

hope you have that old setup over where

you are but I will also be showing you a

couple of PowerPoint presentation sort

of interspersed throughout this course

so I am in fact going to start with that

so I think the first question that

anyone would ask regarding 5g is what is

Phi G it was the first question we asked

ourselves anyway when we started working

with this and it's kind of a difficult

question it's more difficult than with

3G and 4G because then you can say well

you had something before and then you

tweaked it a little bit you did

something you added a new radio

interface where you added a new core

network or you added this or that

whereas with 5g we are prepared to argue

that it is much more fundamental change

and I'm going to show you all this of

course but it's it's I think fair to

give warning that I will talk about more

than radio because it's it's a quite

common I think we would say even

misconception that 5g is all about radio

which it isn't

and there is radio in it there is new

radio called new radio and are in it but

there's also a whole lot of other things

that I'm going to tell you about things

that happen outside the radio access

network inside the core maybe even

outside of 3gpp domain so one way to

approach this subject is to ask this

what kind of a thing is it's when you

just are presented with the word that

you don't know what it is is it is it a

verb is it a noun is it an adjective

what kind of a thing is this

and regarding 5g I think some would say

that well it's kind of a network you

would see the word network near to the

word 5g in lots of presentations and

then you go to these same sources and

then you will find out that maybe it

wasn't a network maybe it was an era

whatever that really means we are now

entering the 5g era is it so sometimes

it's like ah well this is more of a

philosophical question 5g it's it's a

new state of mind it's a business case

more than technology

it's and revolution rather than an

evolution what it what is it now I'm

going to talk a lot about technology

during this course and as sort of sneak

preview into that a lot of that will be

based on what 3gpp are saying and

writing and but we will try to sort of

give a a context for this to show you

how other people look at 5g our other

organizations look at 5g and use cases

that are outside the scope of 3gpp

specifications so I figured one way to

start this off wants to show you just I

would like to show you some YouTube

videos of how 5g is presented by

different actors in this business and I

won't show you a hundred you know hours

of video now so I will just show you a

couple of short videos and maybe not the

whole videos but I think we'll be able

to sort of pick out a couple of

interesting clues as to what 5g is so if

we start off here this is Intel 5g it

promises to transform our lives in all

kinds of different ways but what is it

exactly it's often described as just the

next step in the pursuit of an

ever-faster network but in reality 5g is

much more it's an entirely new

technological foundation purpose-built

to support the next great wave of life

changing digital advancements that will

be enabled by our smart and connected

future from the safety and environmental

benefits of autonomous driving to

dramatic breakthroughs and artificial

intelligence via machine learning and a

whole new era in healthcare to a smart

and connected revolution that will

transform agriculture cities our

individual homes virtual and augmented

reality and even the Olympic Games every

one of these promising new breakthroughs

will be built on the common foundation

of 5g all of which puts Intel and our

partners in a unique position to build

the 5g future together this was only at

the end of the film and most of that was

very high-level stuff you know fancy

science fiction uses of technology in

the future but not really concrete

examples of what that technology was

right up to the end I'm not sure if you

saw that but if I just scroll back a

little bit we had this picture where

there's actually mentioning of smart

devices that's not very specific but

here we see wireless technology we see

LTE that's 4G millimeter wave that's

another way of saying high frequencies

because we're going to use a lot higher

frequencies in 5g radio than previously

up to tens of gigahertz or even up to

nearly 100 gigahertz so the the common

name for that is millimeter wave because

right around you know 30 gigahertz

you're hitting below 1 centimeters or

then you're getting down to millimeters

NBI ot is narrowband Internet of Things

which is also radio technology for for

forming of smaller devices and B

narrowband is what it says just thin

slices of frequency and even Wi-Fi

there is no mentioning here of you know

next-generation radio access network or

even new radio access networks well

that's kind of generic of course we need

to have access networks we need to have

core network and hear them mention NFV

and Sdn okay this is network functions

virtualization something that isn't

something that came from 5g it has been

around for some time you can come to one

of our and free courses if you want to

but it's an immensely important part of

5g so is Sdn which is software-defined

networking and here just cloud cloud

technology there's a lot of cloud around

these days isn't there so if you look at

fire G like this it's not very radio

heavy but quite a few things that are

still ticking technical there's not a

lot of use cases in here but there are

technical advancements that are not

radio specific moving over to this this

is 5g landmarking all illicits Nokia

[Music]

[Music]

did you see that I'm breaking off here

this is very dramatic and very radio we

as a contrast to the previous film if I

go back a little bit here you can see

how they mention higher frequencies so

normal mobile frequencies are around you

know hundreds of megahertz or a couple

of gigahertz now we have 28 Giga Hertz

but as you will see later on in this

course there are suggestions for even

higher frequencies than this so this was

it's that very radio focused here is

Verizon 5g is gonna be a lot of things

most importantly though for a consumer

expect exceedingly high throughput than

you see today so throughput measured in

tens of gigabits per second very low

latency single-digit latency which means

the response time from your request to

the action you get from the network will

be much shorter than it is today and

expect the network that can handle the

ability to to accommodate multiple

millions and possibly billions of

Moschino Machine connections so if you

think you want to take a practical

example let's think about the Game of

Thrones catalog so there's five seasons

of Game of Thrones roughly 10 10

episodes per season probably round 500

megabits megabytes of storage per shell

today download that entire catalog

probably take well over an hour and

that's at roughly 50 megabits per second

on LTE which you see today quite a bit

with 5g when you start to measure tens

of gigabits throughput in that scenario

you're downloading that entire catalog

in under a minute when you look at the

range of opportunities that are created

by did you hear that this is all about

speed now suddenly now it's bitrate its

end-users services being able to

download Game of Thrones very quickly

you need to take that with a grain of

salt though because bit rates are it's a

it's a tricky matter because you can

measure it in different ways and usually

or quite often even in the 5g

requirements

there is a distinction between peak

bitrate and user perceived bitrate which

is very different in fact the peak

bitrate is a number of gigabit per

second whereas the user perceived

betrayed is hundreds of megabits per

second then of course those are

requirements and the technology that is

then built can of course suppose those

requirements and give us much higher

maybe they will give us terabits per

second who knows but when it comes to

the actual 5g requirements they are not

really giving end-users gigabit per

second to begin with so and so now we

are in the bit rate land we are talking

about and use the services and the

particular end-user service was just

high high bit rates fast mobile

broadband this is interesting for

particular reason let's see if you can

spot it this is a speed test how quick

can you drive while having a 5g

connection or rather how high-speed can

you get how high bit rate can you get

while driving really fast car here we go

[Music]

[Music]

[Music]

so I'm not sure if you if you caught it

this was also a kind of a dramatic

example there we had we had beam forming

did you see that

where the beans were kind of following

those cars and that will be a little

part of the presentation later on that

can be achieved with my mo technology so

we'll get back to that later on in the

course but there was something else that

kind of sticks out to me and it was

right around here said record-breaking

5g speed then it went on with networks

slicing I'm not sure if you if you saw

this and just filtered it away or if you

know what it is or if you've heard it a

lot and figure yeah that's usually said

in the context of 5g it is often said in

the context of 5g so it's it's one of

these popular buzzwords to use because

it sounds cool

we will talk a lot about Network slicing

in this course it's it's just not

something that you get more speed with

so it's slightly out of context in this

film so it's not unlikely that someone

just wanted to put it in here to cell

network slicing and the fact that they

can do network slicing but network

slicing is very important so it's it's

cool that they turn do that doesn't

really affect the speed of the cars I I

would argue so network slicing will come

back to it's one of these things and I

will say this for many things in this

course that is part of 5g that is a

crucial part of 5g even but it's not

created for 5g and it's not even new so

something that has been around for a

long time it's now being incorporated

into 5g but the to-to-to telco people it

may be a new thing so

we'll say that about Sdn and NFV and

Network slicing and edge computing and

cloud computing all of this is part of

5g but not really new and not

specifically for 5g finally Samsung's

take on 5g keep your eyes peeled for the

dawn the wireless freedom smaller size

faster speeds a smarter world the next

advancement is here

5g so what's 5g exactly 5g technology is

200 times faster than 4G allowing for

massive amounts of data to be

transferred instantly so how does this

amazing technology work 5g uses

ultra-high broadcast frequencies to

transfer huge amounts of data fast even

though it's broadcast range is limited

we overcame this problem using our

proprietary beamforming technology

through mu-mimo technology which allows

continuous data streaming across

multiple devices and masterful

multi-cell handover processing to ensure

solid gigabyte connections even while on

the go the wonderful world of 5g is

closer than you think

how will Samsung's 5g change the way we

do things

[Music]

wanna take a closer peek third row seats

to rock concerts at home

no more frustrating video conferences

because it'll feel like they're in the

room with you from so far away and

naturally curious children the ones that

get bored easily whole new worlds will

now unfold you for them swamped with

work for once wouldn't it be nice to

have the car drive itself robotic

precision will be up to par with that of

human hands for making for a safer and

easier work environment our smart

lifestyles will be freer than before

and more convenient than before what do

you think worth waiting for right the

world of your imaginations made true

with 5g it's Samsung fireside well worth

worth waiting for

possibly so what did we pick up there in

that high-speed movie well there were

some techy things in the beginning I'm

not sure if you saw that we had here was

said 3G 4G 5g

he had our millimeter-wave right

so we had our millimeter-wave and we had

beamforming and then my mo mu mu is for

multi multiple user my mo so we had

these technical things but we also had

use cases and in fact quite a few there

was a heavy focus on end user services

here so we saw virtual reality and

augmented reality that's where you sort

of overlay an image on whatever you seen

for real that's augmented reality and 3d

and Holograms and there was driving

automatic driving there was remote

control of things remote control that

that controlling of something on the

other side of a network is sometimes

called tactile internet which will come

up a little bit later when you can even

you can almost have a feel feedback I

move something my move a pen or a tool

here where I am that moves something on

another side and whenever that thing on

the other side hits a wall or a thing I

can feel that where I am so I actually

get the feeling whatever happens on the

remote side transferred it to me

tactile that's some feeling or touch

feedback so there was a heavy focus on

and user services here did you see the

dog was it here

this is the dog with VR glasses nice its

virtualizing a little bone with the

ribbon so 5g can be explained in many

different ways it can be explained by

engineers in Finland going hmm

over a radio a thing in a very

cool-looking lab and it can be explained

why this with this happy lady on a

virtual rock concert if we move back to

my presentation we will try to find our

way in this jungle and end up with

something that is technically

describable and towards the end of this

presentation I will have a little list

of things and I'm going to say that

these are the constituent parts of 5g

these things together make up 5g it will

be a list of six things and I will show

you so this is this is 5g according to

us at APIs IP solutions because there is

no world organization that says this is

exactly what five years you can argue

3gpp they do that yeah but they describe

technical underlying stuff they don't

describe usually their overlying

services which some people argue is the

only reason for 5g and the important

part of 5g so that was 5g in video 5g in

pictures can look like this

what is 5g about who can make the

picture a little bit smaller than like

that what is 5g about well it's about

lots of smart things so we have smart

wearables and smart mobility and smart

parking just put smart in front of

everything so this is a very end user

focused way of drawing this this is the

European Union that drew this picture if

you go to 5g PPP which is the 5g

infrastructure public private

partnership they draw it like this so

here we see a lot of connected things

instead of small things quite often the

same thing it turns out connected house

connected city connected people

connected transportation connected

health everything is connected fargy PPP

also drew this this is a number that's

often repeated we're going to increase

the wireless capacity a thousand times

and we're coming back to that a little

bit in the radio section because most of

the sort of bitrate speed increase is

done over the radio interface we're

going to give services to billions and

billions of people and trillions of

things energy efficient efficiency is

quite an important part of this and it

may come as a surprise to some how much

of the incentive for the whole

virtualization trend going on has to do

with a saving poem but that is the case

latency zero latency latency normal is

normally interpreted as the time it

takes from for a message or signal to go

from point A to point B so typically

from a mobile phone to the network for

instance but then it gets tricky because

how do you measure that do you measure

it to the base station or to the core

network or to the application server on

the other side of the core network and

also any which way you measure it can't

can it really become zero

does that sound reasonable well even

here in this picture if we zoom in a

little bit

mmm perceiving zero downtime anyway so

then we are already sort of scratching

on the surface named latency is part of

the requirements for 5g so I will come

back to that towards the end of this

presentation GSM Association GSMA they

are also in this game

they haven't presented very detailed

technical documents yet they have for

some things previously so they may in in

the future even for 5g but again we are

going through how different

organizations draw 5g and GSM

Association is an important organization

so this is Phi G at the center of a

heterogeneous network environment and

partly the reason why we show you

pictures from others is to to sort of

explain 5g but also explain how far G

can be drawn is so many different ways

often in ways that are to some extent

difficult to understand so Phi G is the

center of a network environment here for

some reason 5g is the connector here for

mall city motorway but over here in

rural there is no connection for some

reason also we have 4G and 5g there but

not in inside here 5g will incorporate

4G as well we will use 4G for lots of

reasons just for normal fallback and in

to working with all the technologies but

also we can have things like dual

connectivity and B be both 4G and 5g

connected and so on Ericsson drew this

picture where we have the 5g network and

this blue line going around like this we

have a couple of devices a robot and the

power meter and a phone

I'm already here we can sort of see that

maybe not everything in the fire system

will be people so we have this is kind

of an internet of thing things kind of

thing this is probably a phone this is

some kind of industrial application but

more importantly this whole thing over

here

large part of the 5g network is in the

core network so we have access and

central data center and this is cloud

and it says cloud so there is a lot of

cloud technology which translates to a

lot of virtualization NFV network

functions virtualization and Sdn

Software Defined Networking so that we

can programmatically decide what runs in

here where it runs and how they these

things connect to each other

so there's almost invisible 5g in this

little globe over there so I'm thinking

that probably means connecting to other

5g players or operators in the world you

can also draw 5g like this this is the

3gpp picture of 5g this is quite far

from that picture with smart houses and

connected health and everything this is

very it's difficult to see that this is

5g if you if you don't have any hints or

clues but it turns out this is a picture

that we're going to spend a lot of time

with in this course not exactly this way

of drawing this picture because there is

a more commonly used way of drawing this

picture called the service based

architecture which I will show in in in

the first lessons but we will have boxes

with acronyms like this and they will

connect to each other was named

interfaces quite often and this is the

most standardized picture of three of

the 5g that we can show you because even

though lots of you know organizations

companies educational organizations are

part of 5g the only ones who really

standardized this technically on a on a

big scale is 3gpp so and that's why we

are spending a lot of time with 3gpp in

this course so you will learn all about

all of these things in this course and

more I promise you it's popular to

measure things we saw that previously

the guy from Verizon and the movie

started doing measurements with how long

time does it take to download the game

of Thrones episodes and so on so key

performance indicators KPIs or numbers

this is a picture from itu itu is the

biggest standardization organization

International Telecommunications Union

there used to be the use of

the International Telegraph Union that's

how old they are they are since some

time back a part of the United Nations

so they really are the job is to sort of

better the world for everyone and they

are the ones who gave rise to 3G and

then 4G and now Phi G they did that by

asking the world

can you please build a thing that looks

like this they did this for 3G and so

there was a competition and there were

essentially two winning horses there was

UMTS and CDMA 2000 they did it for 4G we

only have one winning race winning horse

for that the competition for 4G was

called IMT advanced and the only sort of

race horse in that race was LTE advanced

so LTE advanced is is 4G according to

ITU and the 5g competition is called IMT

2020 2020 because because of the year

2020 they are expecting this to become

real by the year 2020 and you see the

numbers around here you see mobility and

you see latency and you see area traffic

capacity and you can see these changes

so you can see that the latency is not

zero for any of these two so the inner

inner blob here maybe that wasn't clear

is 4G IMT advanced and the outer blob is

5g IMT 2020 so we can see that for

instance the peak data rate has risen

from 1 to 20 gigabit per second from 4G

to Phi G but the user experienced data

rate goes up from 10 to 100 megabit per

second again then it can be higher than

that but these are requirements but then

again even when they draw these pictures

these numbers kind of vary depending on

different use cases ITU themselves how

three use cases that I'm coming back to

in a moment there's an organization

called ng MN for for next generation

mobile network and they they help out

on the periphery with use cases and

standardizing some things and in their

use cases they have this use case for

instance the indoor ultra-high broadband

access which really is one gigabit per

second in the user experience data rate

column okay so much higher than that

requirement that we just saw as a

minimum but then again do everyone need

that minimum doesn't everyone need a

hundred megabit per second not likely if

you have that little power meter that we

saw an example of previously in that

Ericsson picture it probably doesn't

need that all the time so for this

example here we have resilience and

traffic surge this is not a power meter

but you can have it for reporting

traffic situations and so on well point

one megabit per second still the same

column user experience data rate just

for different use cases we saw Network

slicing being mentioned and I made a

little fun of that movie because I

didn't think you'd really fit in but I

thought the movie was really cool and

they had the beams for following the car

and everything

so no shadow on on them network slicing

is important in 5g and we will come back

to network slicing we will have a whole

fold out that we will fill in honor

network slicing the general idea with

network slicing is to have some kind of

physical infrastructure that's this

thing down here

this is fargy PPP drawing this picture

so again in this introduction would like

to show you pictures from from other

parties than ourselves to give you a

varied view of how 5g is drawn so a

physical networking infrastructure then

then logically we can make this look

different ways depending on who is using

it so we have a green tenant the green

user here he will get the green slice so

he will get access

- some of these nodes may be part of

these nodes and it will look like this

we will have these network functions

connected to him for tenant B he has

other network functions up here that he

gets access to but it's the same

physical infrastructure the same servers

hard drives Rooter switches cables down

here that those are the essential

physical Lego blocks that we build

things with but then it's perceived

differently depending on who is using it

and this can also change over time maybe

at particular moment in time the red

user doesn't exist and suddenly he

becomes a user so he pays for this and

then you boot up the red things down

here so that he can you can use those

another way of drawing that same thing

here from Huawei is here where we have

matched the the three slices in this

picture with the itu use cases that we

are coming back to in a moment so we

have a physical infrastructure down here

that's this big blue box there and then

they are used for three different things

for extreme mobile broadband that's one

you just download Game of Thrones pretty

fast

Earl that's ultra reliable low latency

communications critical applications as

really really needs super low latency it

could be it could be critical

communication between police and firemen

and things like that that kind of could

be traffic applications where cars need

to communicate really quickly to avoid a

collision ultra reliable low latency

communication and this is mm TC this is

massive machine type communication

that's the Internet of Things musci p--

machine type communication is the 3gpp

word for machine to machine

there's no humans involved and the first

M is for massive so lots of things

Internet of massive amounts of things

not just internet of things but internet

of lots and lots of things

and of course these three use cases

present quite different requirements on

the network and therefore they should

perceive the network differently and

they do this service perceives this kind

of network and I won't go into what

these things are you can just look at

these blobs or these rectangles here and

see that they are different in some way

the point is that they are different

even though they are running on the same

physical infrastructure we are slice

this physical infrastructure to give us

these three very different looking

networks

so I mentioned ITU and these contests

that ITU has they had the 3d contest and

the 4G contest and the 5g contest and

the 5g contest was called IMT 2020 so

these requirements could be argued are

the ones that actually matter it is

argued by some ITU has different parts

there's one part called ITU our R is for

radio so the radio side of 5g is this

these are the required requirements on

on Phi G from the radio side peak data

rate twenty gigabit per second but even

we just see more and more details right

it started off with just mmm one number

and then we realize it different

depending on if it's peak data rate or

user experience data rate and now we see

it differs depending on whether it's

uplink or downlink so the number we saw

previously was actually the downlink

because that sounds better because it's

a higher number but it's requirement is

actually 10 gigabit per second in uplink

user data rate we saw the 100 number we

didn't see the 50 megabit per second

uplink number

average traffic capacity maybe it's not

often you see megabit per second per

square meter but I guess if you think

about it makes sense Internet of Things

is coming we need to cram things

together and we need to get lots of

bandwidth to you know very confined

areas use a plain latency this is the

latency that you probably think of when

you hear the word latency how long time

does it take for a message to go from

the phone to in this case a certain

level in the base station and it's not

zero but it's not a one number either

it's one two four and that depends on

the use case so if it's the ultra

reliable low latency communication it's

one if it's the massive machine type

communication where you maybe don't need

that high throughput you don't really

need super low latency it can be four

milliseconds there's another latency

which is the reason why I said

previously this is probably the latency

you think of this latency probably not

the latest you think of but it's part of

the requirements this latency is not a

time it takes for signaling to pass from

one place to another it's the time it

takes to wake up the time it takes for a

device to go from a passive to active

state and the requirement happens to be

twenty milliseconds for that there is

sort of in in conjunction with this

average traffic capacity megabit per

second per square meter this is number

of users or devices per unit of area

some a million devices per square

kilometer also makes sense in this

Internet of Things era right mobile

stations speed so up to 500 kilometer

kilometers per hour is possible with 5g

and again as I said previously with all

these numbers you could get system with

higher numbers these are minimum numbers

requirements minimum requirements and

finally sis

interruption time this is the time

during which devices allowed to just

spend time for itself and not caring

about the users essentially now yeah the

time where it says oh I need to do some

housekeeping internally and then I'll

get back to you and start sending your

user data and that is as you can see not

allowed you need to do that at the same

time so zero system downtime to do

internal housekeeping that was itu-r IQR

for radio but then we have itu-t those

other high tea is for technical and it's

a the they were the radios also

technically I guess but but this is the

name of that part of ITU that has the

sort of higher broader broader view than

just radio so they have a Phi G document

that look like this all of this that I'm

showing you is free to download you

don't need to pay anything

so the IMT 2020 deliverables they have

that and I it's a quite readable

document so I recommend it to you I have

a couple of excerpts here and I won't

even read these full excerpts but there

are some highlights here so it says here

evolution in radio performance and maybe

someone says yes that's what five years

but if you read before that five years

not only through further evolution and

radio performers so that this will

happen evolution of radio performance

but much more will happen to give us

increased end-to-end flexibility

software sation is a code word for

virtualization so read NFV here here

they specifically say Sdn nfe and cloud

computing and finally they finish off

with network slicing right after this

section there is this and this thought

is this thought is good and the bullets

are not as surprising IMT 2020 that's

fine G is not just an increase in

bandwidth

but rather a fundamental change to

support the following capabilities and

then these following capabilities are

capabilities that you wouldn't be

surprised maybe to have seen in 4G or

even 3G okay so we need to support 5g

radio access technology okay that that

makes sense to cope with traffic

explosion depends on what you mean with

explosion sure there is a higher bigger

explosion now than before but traffic

has exploded for for some time to easily

incorporate future emerging services

sure we want that we have probably

wanted that before as well we wanted

even more now to provide cost efficient

infrastructure I think you'd be

hard-pressed to find someone in the last

decades who said that was not a goal of

the technical evolution and to expand

the geographic reach of the 5g network

so I think the so this is sort of a kind

of bland statement but this where they

specifically say that this is a

fundamental change the change for 4G to

Phi G is much bigger than from 3G to 4G

and the previous changes as well as a

warning to you

itu also have these use cases and

they're also part of this itu-t document

that you can read so it's enhanced

mobile broadband and they describe this

on a very high technical level not very

well defined they say well we can have

things like virtual reality for k8k we

can have hologram services anytime

anyplace

so rather high-level description for

this or ultra reliable low latency

communication here they mention tactile

Internet that's what I mentioned

previously when I said you operate a

device where you are that is sort of

controlling a device at the other end

you can feel the feedback imagine a

surgeon performing an operation on a

patient and they're not in the same room

that surgeon will probably need to feel

in his scalpel device that is probably

not a real scalpel but some kind of

penny device that is holding he will

need to feel sort of the push back from

whatever he is doing this is tactile

internet or tactile network connections

and that sort of overlaps with this

medical and industrial robots kind of in

in that area and also here the vehicle

to everything the v2x

communications where it's super

important to have both reliable and low

latency communication finally the

Internet of Things in IT use wording is

called massive machine type

communication or mm TC and here just

says lots of things lots of IOT things

but these are the use cases that are

being used throughout the world now

these use cases are the sort of the

benchmark that we use the categorization

used for different services in 3gpp they

will it creates sort of categorizations

for different slices for instance and

the different kinds of slices that you

can create are explicitly matching these

three different use cases that list can

be expanded but in the current

specification you can make these three

kinds of networked slices very much like

that Huawei picture that I showed you

before those were three slices were

those exact use cases so these three use

cases are often depicted like this by

ITU as well as Sen Huawei and Ericsson

and Nokia Alcatel and everyone else in

the world so we had these three corners

of this triangle or pyramid and then you

can match your actual user application

well it's a little bit of en baby and a

little bit of an empty sea so it's

somewhere there or it's mix of these two

so it kind of ends

to help find your bearings to make you

know header tail of the 5g world

timelines we have seen a slight allusion

to time where we saw the name of IMT

2020 because 2020 comes from the year

2020 and there are lots of timelines

presented in the world from different

organizations so what we did was we took

a few of these timelines and we tried to

sort of organize them in a way so in the

next slide I will show you a combination

of timelines this is just 3gpp first

because we are focusing a lot on 3gpp so

we want to be very clear with that

timeline they have two different phases

phase 1 and phase 2 and phase 1 is is

release 15 then we are going on with

with release 16 which will be the final

phase of 3gpp 5g but for G phase 1 has

itself to sort of phases sort two parts

to it it starts off with non standalone

new radio this was finished in the

beginning of 2018 it was showcased in

the in the Olympics in South Korea non

standalone means we don't have a 5g core

it means we have 5g radio with notify G

core standalone new radio means we have

new radio and 5g core and then it

evolves with phase 2 so if we look at

this and look at this in a sort of

longer time scale so now we have from

from 2015 all the way up here to 2020

you can see release 15 that's fargy

phase 1 so those are the green things up

there and after that is finished we

follow on with phase 2 which

we finished in 2020 and that is the that

the final that there's there's not a

Phase three

currently 3gpp will consider themselves

sort of ready with 5g after after phase

two then it will evolve as well of

course as always no long term evolution

long term evolution immediately had

sequels long term evolution to its back

in is bad long term evolution long term

evolution advanced and then long term

evolution advanced pro and then we have

new radio from the 5g specifications

then these will all live in parallel

with each other so right now as of this

recording right now these the foggy

phase one hasn't been frozen because I'm

recording this somewhere around here it

will release 15 hasn't been frozen which

means in a lot of these documents it

says for further study or to be

determined and not all the answers

exists there are questions that are

difficult to find answers to and there

are questions that don't have answers

right now still I will show you things

that do have answers and we don't expect

these answers to change otherwise it

would be unfair to you but but there you

go so if we stick a few of these

timelines together it can look like this

and I won't go through any of the

details here I'm just sort of showing

you the gist of things 3gpp have their

timeline fargy PPP have their timeline

we have ng MN that have their timeline

they are sort of giving a peripheral

support in a way to the to the

standardization here and finally ITU has

a timeline going all the way back to 3G

imt-2000 and we have

IMT advanced and then we have IMT 2020

so when it comes to to the ITU timeline

what is interesting is the fact that we

have the world radio congresses that WRC

we have one 2015 and we're going to have

one 2019 and that those are important

because that's where people are the

world needs to agree to a large extent

on frequencies to use because we're

wondering how will this work how will we

agree on frequencies well the world

radio Congress is organized by ITU is to

a large extent the answer to that

question how do we agree on frequencies

so we are somewhat agreed but we are

waiting for the complete agreement on

WRC 19 also it's good to note here that

this the IMT 2020 competition the 5g

race has one competitor and it is the

release 16 so phase 2 from 3gpp it's not

release 15 release 15 is the start of 5g

and release 16 is the finish of

from 3gpp s perspective so a very high

level summary around this timeline we

had ideas and then we started creating

standards doing trials around here

that's pretty much where we are right

now trials that almost look like final

products at least when you talk to sales

people Showtime by 2020 hopefully and

big time later on because it will be

hopefully real here but not widely

deployed probably

so in conclusion do we agree about

anything

5g requirements

well it's tricky with requirements we

looked at all those pictures that I've

showed you and try to pick out the

things that come again and again and

again so what things do seem to come

again and again well really reliable

mobile services so users like police and

firemen have previously used specialized

equipment and specialized networks maybe

we can have the 5g be flexible enough to

be able to handle those kinds of

requirements as well that's part of the

of the goal Falls the radio data

connection certainly new radio is the at

least to a large extent the answer to

that and it is maybe one of the things

that people think first about when they

think about 5g but virtualization is

important we need to have more mobile

data capacity not just faster networks

slicing seems to be super important if

you read the white papers from all the

players cloud technology cloud computing

different access technologies working

together I haven't mentioned that so

much but we have new radio coming and I

mentioned that new radio will live on

together with with it with the evolution

of 4G LTE Advanced Pro but also there is

even in 3gpp there is a quite strong

link to using Wi-Fi both Wi-Fi as it is

or just using Wi-Fi frequencies but also

you can connect it in the Internet of

Things world with completely other

access technologies maybe you have a

gateway that uses a Bluetooth or Laura

or ZigBee or any of these cool

short-range technologies towards the

devices and then translates that and

sends it on using 5g to the core network

more functions closer to customers we

have a whole fold out on this later on

neck stands for multi access edge

computing and the edge in edge computing

is geographically at the edge so much

physically closer to the customer

something running maybe even on the base

station site so not needing to reach

towards the core or through the core to

an application server that's far beyond

the core but actually accessing a server

that is very close to the consumer of

the service which is one of the ways in

which we can get super low latency

remember the use case early ultra

reliable low latency communication and

finally just zillions of connected

things that number just changes all the

time how many billions or trillions

devices will we have well lots and lots

and lots of things I promised you a list

towards the end where I would say you

say to you what we think 5g is and it's

not this list that doesn't mean that

this isn't true this is the list when we

look at all the sort of how far G is

being sold and being described by

different players in the world if you

want to learn 5g technically our

consensus is this you need to understand

next generation ran that's specified by

3gpp it includes new radio but it also

includes new ways to use ran to have

dual connectivity and new kinds of

carrier aggregation or a have multi

radio access technology dual

connectivity so that you have the phone

accessing both 4G and a 5g at the same

time for instance so you need to

understand that the the radio access

network needs a core that is 5g see the

5g core these two together become the

five GS by the way but you will see that

in the next presentation some would say

this is all this is far G but then

you're missing something you're missing

virtualization which is immensely

important and the best way to approach

virtualization from a telco perspective

is to look at anything

network function virtualization Sdn

Software Defined Networking also super

important to not have static switches

and routers but being able to you know

at the flip of a switch or the the press

of a button change what a what a packet

forwarding device does to be able to use

the most optimal path for data in your

networks none of these things are

defined by 3gpp Sdn isn't defined by

anyone really that's not a coherent

standard if you will

Sdn is more of a technical thing and

then there are lots of ways to achieve

Sdn lots of different protocols and

different creators all of Sdn

controllers NFV is in a way the same

thing and if we is sort of all we just

virtualized things but if you actually

use the name NFV like this and the terms

within nfe like virtualized network

function there's something called an N

if we I there's something called the

mono all of that is in the NFI bubble so

to speak and that's defined by F C so

this is X the European

telecommunications standards Institute

so we have 3gpp 3gpp Etsy pretty much no

one

we have MEC which is multi access edge

computing remember that edge that's

running things close to the customer

this is also one of these things where

edge computing itself has been around

for a long time and it and isn't

something that some someone owns but

there is a mech standard with terms and

names and it's also written by Etsy so

Etsy does n FV and Etsy does make and

finally legacy you need to understand

how 5g interacts with 4G or maybe even

older technologies how does IMS or

voiceover LTE work there is a very

little talk about voice over 5g I'm not

even sure how you pronounce that volt

I can I can say that was difficult

enough with a voice over high-speed

packet access for spa difficulty Brown

volt that much better try to pronounce

voice over five G vo fargy love wolf RG

it's it's not mentioned almost at all

but then again it probably doesn't need

to be particularly because we still have

IMS we can connect to IMS and we can

have forms like that there are some

technical details that need to be

addressed in order to make for five G

work because the names of the quality of

service classes have changed from 4G to

5g and they just need to be decided upon

all of this is the APIs IP solutions

picture all 5g these are technical

things that we can describe to you and

luckily these are technical things that

we do describe to you in this very

course that you are attending right now

so in the next presentation we're going

to start off by showing you like an

overview of ng run and 5g see just how

what what is an access network what is a

core network what do they do and then

we're going to continue diving into the

5g core and then pick off one of these

things after another and there will be

quite a few other I was going to say

surprises I'm not sure they are but a

few interesting things along the way

that you may not have guessed would

appear so I will see you in the next

lesson

you