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Memorize the 20 Amino Acids in 9 Minutes



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aliphatic amino acids are nonpolar and

therefore hydrophobic a simple mnemonic

to remember the six aliphatic amino

acids is glaciers in Alaska valiantly

locate isolated prowlers

glycine alanine valine leucine

isoleucine prolene it is key to remember

them in this order glycine alanine

valine leucine isoleucine prolene

because this makes it relatively easy to

remember the structures let's start with

glycine this is the simplest amino acid

and the only non chiral one a chiral

carbon is attached to four different

groups glycine is attached to two

hydrogen's since it's our group the

group that changes among the 20 amino

acids is a hydrogen alanine has a methyl

group instead of a hydrogen from here on

in the amino acids look a bit like a

germinating seed with the r group as the

growing root in valine the root splits

into two reutlitz both methyls in

leucine the root grows longer and here

the root analogy stops you can think of

isoleucine as a conformational isomers

of leucine prolene is the only ring

structure but noted is not aromatic

hence it is not one of the three

aromatic amino acids and now for a brief

review

glacier's glycine in Alaska alanine

valine Li baleen locate leucine isolated

isoleucine prowlers prolene

aromatic amino acids fulfilled the three

rules of aromaticity

they are rings they must be planar

usually sp2 hybridized with the

unhybridized p orbitals overlapping to

form a continuous ring of planar

orbitals the ring must follow huckel's

rule having 4n plus 2 electrons in its

system of conjugated p orbital clouds or

n is an integer here is a way to

remember the three aromatic amino acids

remember how glaciers nolasco valiantly

locate isolated prowlers well why do

people still go there it's because their

aroma of fine pine and yellow timber are

worth the trip the aromatic compounds

include phenylalanine tyrosine and

tryptophan phenylalanine has a benzyl

attached to it tyrosine is almost

identical but has a hydroxyl group

tryptophan has two aromatic rings one a

five membered ring with a nitrogen and

one a six membered ring the rings sort

of look like a W if you think about it

unlike with the aliphatic amino acids or

the single letter abbreviations are all

the first letter of the amino acid names

the aromatic amino acids have weird

single letter abbreviations you can

remember them this way pine trees

phenylalanine have fine needles F timber

tyrosine is yellow Y and the trip is

worth it w-2 of the amino acids are

alcohols while alcohol is a serious

threat memorizing these amino acids will

be a serious treat serine and threonine

have very easy abbreviations the one

letter abbreviations are just the first

letter of each amino acid while the

three-letter abbreviations are just the

first three letters of each amino acid

what a serious treat here is the

structure of serine as you can see the

structure of threonine just has an extra

methyl group attached to the carbon

making it chiral

three of their amino acids are bases

here's a way to remember them basically

as lost kid always returned the basic

amino acids are histidine lysine and

arginine and the one letter

abbreviations were the last two are not

the first letter of each while histidine

is abbreviated as H lysine is

abbreviated as K and arginine is

abbreviated as R luckily the

three-letter abbreviations are the first

three letters of each amino acid let's

look at histidine well not much we can

do here but just memorize it but here is

the cool bit once we memorize histidine

it is very easy to remember the other

two basic amino acids we can change

histidine to lysine thus first remove

the two double bonds and the bond

between the N with the lone pair and the

carbon on its top left next remove the

NH change the end with a lone pair to an

nh3

this is lysine now let's change lysine

to arginine switch the ch2 and nh3 plus

erase the three plus and the H to dry in

two NH 2's attached to the carbon since

carbon makes four bonds one of the

nitrogen's will have a double bond to a

carbon as a result it will have a

positive charge and that's arginine now

let's compare the three side-by-side his

histidine lost lysine kid K always

arginine returned R there are two sulfur

containing amino acids and they are

special because each can link to other

sulfur-containing amino acids through

oxidation of their salt hydral bonds to

form sulfur sulfur bonds but that is

outside the scope of this video the easy

way to remember the sulfur-containing

amino acids is to methodically check the

path for sulfur

methionine and cysteine are the two

sulfur containing amino acids and

fortunately the abbreviations are just

the first letter of each and the first

three letters of each here is methionine

to get cysteine you check between two

rocks the methyls get rid of them and

all you're left with is sulfur

desperately trying to hide behind the

one rock left

there are two acid amino acids as Peter

digested the glue his stomach became

acidic the two acid amino acids are

aspartate and glutamate these are

actually two excitatory

neurotransmitters of the brain in other

words they make postsynaptic neurons

more likely to fire anyway the

three-letter abbreviations are just the

first three letters of each but the one

letter abbreviations are not here is the

structure of aspartate just blunt

memorization unfortunately glutamate is

easy to remember though you just glue on

another carbon tada

the amede amino acids are so named

because they have an immediate amana is

amid this neatly stacked asparagus is a

gluttonous quail the to a meat amino

acids are asparagine and glutamine the

one letter abbreviation for asparagine

is N and for glutamine it's q since the

three-letter abbreviations can't be the

same as for the acid amino acids they

are a SN for asparagine and GL n for

glutamine attention be careful and don't

confuse the acid amino acids with the

Amidah meno acids you can remember that

the amide amino acids are the ones

ending in e because amines and amines

are often confused as the two functional

groups with nitrogen's here is

asparagine structure unfortunately blunt

memorization is needed here but it is

easy to remember glutamine because what

happens to those who are gluttonous they

get bigger and that is exactly what

happens to glutamine it gets an extra

carbon now I wonder if any of you have

noticed a cool pattern between the acid

and Amade amino acids

well aspartate and asparagine both have

two carbons and there are groups and

glutamate and glutamine both have 3

carbons and there are groups the only

difference between the pair of acids and

the pair of a means is the following

just the last point about amino acid

properties acid and basic amino acids

are charged amino acids all aliphatic

amino acids as well as methionine a

sulfur containing amino acid and

phenylalanine and tryptophan which are

aromatic amino acids are nonpolar amino

acids all alcohol amino acids and a mead

amino acids as well as cysteine which is

a sulfur containing amino acid and

tyrosine which is an aromatic amino acid

or polar amino acids if you liked this

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