Livestock Judging Clinic- Judging Sheep with Andy Burlingham

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right good afternoon everyone today

we're going to talk a little bit about

judging sheep I'm gonna try to cover the

basics the best I can doing it here on

the virtual platform we're gonna be

using a combination of some slides and

some pictures and some videos I hope

everyone's internet connection holds up

through the videos then I'm gonna show

and that the audio comes through okay I

know some time to get a lot of people on

here and sometimes the audio can get a

little jumpy or sometimes the video can

get a little jumpy but I hope it holds

out for everyone today all right I'm

gonna start our PowerPoint here all

right so we're gonna start off with

terminology because sometimes if you

haven't judged a lot that may be

confusing so most the time when we're

talking about sheep classes will hear

three different kinds of labels or

descriptions for the classes the first

one being market lamb we're judging

market lambs it can be a mix of both

weathers castrated male sheep and you

lambs are used they're all gonna be less

than a year of age and we're gonna be

judging those on the market

characteristics for our breeding classes

we usually labeled either breeding use

or weather dams those are the two

classifications while they mean the same


all gonna be female sheep they can be of

different ages we can have you Lambs

being less than a year of age or we may

have yearling ewes sometimes we have a

description of grilling news which are

used that are between you know 12 months

old and 24 months old and a possibility

you could judge some older sheep than

that but most the time we're gonna be

judging either you lamps or yearling

news when the class is labeled as a

weather damn it doesn't change what

we're seeing in the class it just gonna

change our priorities whether damming

they're going we're trying to produce

whether Lambs for production for

probably for the show ring and so we're

just gonna put some if change our

emphasis won't you get to our criteria

or our selection criteria are we looking

at we're just gonna change

put some more emphasis on things such as

muscle over maybe femininity or size a

little bit everybody put some more

emphasis on the muscle characteristics

of those use then maybe if it just

calling us straight breeding you class

so that's the only difference so

breeding use and whether dams are be

classes the females it just changes is

the emphasis of what we're looking for

in those classes a little bit we're

judging sheep it is very important that

we use the right terminology to describe

the body part we are talking about in

sheep there's a few that are specific

just to sheep right one of those would

be the top and the back we call this the

rack so from the top of the shoulder the

very back edge of the shoulder blade

going back to the loin and its portion

over the top of the ribs we're gonna

call that the rack just like in all the

rest of the species the portion here we

call the loin do we move back into the

rump the rump is from the hook bones

going back to the dock so all the area

of the pelvis the dock what we call the

shortened piece of the tail has left on

the back end of the

animal we call that the doc we call it

the leg I don't want to know sometimes

people call it you know getting a little

confused and I call it the ham or the


that'd be the improper term for when

we're talking about sheep we're gonna

call that the leg if we're in the front

of the lamb you know

Oh in cattle we call this the brisket I

mean hogs if I'm talking about the jowl

up in here but here in lambs the most

time we refer to this as the breast to

the breast of the Lambs up here in the

front right so if we hear talk terms on

my breast that's up here in the front so

those are the ones that are in

particular they're specific to lambs the

rest of the terms are pretty much the

same you know we're gonna talk about the

belly and the rib and the structural

parts the hock and the pasture and the

hoof and the knee and the forearm those

are consistent really across all of our

livestock judging species just these

ones the rack the doc which rid the leg

and the breast are very particular to

when we're talking about market lambs or

sheep in general or judging sheep in

general it's very important to become

familiar with the different parts as we

judging sheep because if we don't know

so when we try it when we try to give

reasons and we want to talk to somebody

about trying to describe the animal we

want to make sure you're using the right

terminology and then we know when we're

talking about the loin we know where the

loin is or we're gonna talk about

handling a lamb here a little bit that

we are handling the right portion of the

animal to determine the size of that


so we're going to start with market

lambs I think market lambs are slightly

easier to judge them breeding ewes but

we want to always remember what we're

looking for the priorities the number

one priority we're looking at market

lambs is muscle we're looking for the

amount of meat we're gonna have enough

carcass that's what their purpose is to

provide meat we're gonna be looking I'm

going to show some pictures here in a

minute before we look for that muscle

with down the top of the animal through

the leg of the animal next is finish

finishes the term in ascribes the amount

of fact there's on the external portion

of the animal between the between the

hide over over the muscle of animal in

market lambs we want some finish

finishes an important product for making

a good a tasty product when we when we

eat that meat coming from the lamb we

want some fat also when the lamb is

being processed it's hanging in the

cooler for a day or two that fat

protects that muscle tissue prevents it

from drunk dehydrating from losing water

as it's hanging in the cooler before it

is cut and packaged so we want some

finishing line we don't want lambs that

have no finish we don't want too much so

finding the right amount of finish or

evaluating the Lambs to find the right

amount of finish is very important and

we're gonna talk specifically about

finished here in just a minute

next pounds in volume will we sell Lambs

notice the time we are getting paid on

the weight of that lamb you could have

two Lambs of equal finish an equal

muscle but if one weighs 90 pounds in

one weighs a hundred and thirty-five

pounds the one is 135 pounds is gonna

out place the lighter your weight lamb

because there's more total pounds of

product in that animal and coming along

with pounds also comes the volume of the

animal looking at the size of the body

the width the depth we're gonna talk

about that here in just a minute and

then finally structure in balanced

structure we want those animals be able

to walk while it's not as important for

structure as we're gonna talk about new

Lambs they are still a reflection

of the breeding stock so we're judging

market lambs that is a reflection of

what that breeding stock looked like so

if we're choosing poor structured market

lambs that's meaning there's probably

problems back in our breeding flock and

we don't want to select for those kind

of animals I don't want to put those

animals up on the top in the class but

minor structure faults are not as

important or not is highly critical to

put down as in breeding sheep and then

finally balance how that package is all

put together and how the animal looks

also kind of comes in place especially

when we're talking about closer pairs of

animals we have two that are fairly

similar and muscle and finish and weight

some of those small things like

structure and balance really come into

play for making decisions in tighter

pairs so when we look at the sheep we're

going to evaluate them from three

different angles from the side and the

front and rear and then from the top and

the three dimensions or three sides or

three ends we're gonna be looking from

when we first approached the class and

we're looking at it from the side we can

tell a lot about the animal we can see

the overall links of body of the animal

we can see the size and scale we can

look from the from the you know

comparing one animal to the next the

height from where it stands in the

ground to the height of its back line we

can see the depth of body which I'm

about depth the body the depth from the

bet is spine going down to the bottom

edge of its belly what's the depth how

how much space is there from that back

line to the belly line we can see that

depth of body we can see those other

lines we can see the lines in the

shoulder how the head and neck are

attached to the breast in the animal we

can see the straightness the links here

of the rump of the animal we can see the

lines of the leg we can see the set to

the hock the sets in the pastern the set

to the knee in the front and evaluate

whether those lines are in a correct

angle and we can also see some of that

dimension of muscling particularly and

we can see that bulge coming off the

back side of the animal of the muscle

and a flatter animal has to be more of a

flat angles both feel a bulge you're

looking at the rear side of the leg so

we can see those kind of things were

evaluating animals from the side they

were going to move to the back view the

back view really tells us a lot about

the amount of muscle and volume in

particular in the animal it's harder to

talk a little bit about the the pattern

and the structural correctness from the

rear there's some things we can evaluate

in structural correctness from the rear

but we're looking from the rear we're

really looking at that mount volume of

muscle and that volume of the animal

we're looking at the width and the

thickness and dimension of the animal

down its top here across the hip how

wide it is how wide is it from outside

to outside of each leg how deep is the

animal in his twist so from from his

dock down here to the bottom edge where

the two legs come together the depth in

this portion right here through the can

we call the twist of the animal the

further down this goes the more of a you

and less of a V the shape is here and

the twist of the animal usually they're

a sign of more muscle we can see the

amount of width they stand at the ground

so wider the animal stands at the ground

at its feet here corresponds usually

with the width of the animal up top

animal it stands wider at the ground is

you most of the time gonna be wider at

the top edge of that animal because they

just physically have a wider body to

stretch that muscle across on the top so

we look at the width body here at the

bottom they were looking down the top of

the animal the top and animal we're

seeing kind of two things simultaneously

or three things we're gonna be looking

at the muscle we're gonna be looking at

the volume and we're gonna be looking

for the finish or fat cover all day and

we'll look over the top

we'll evaluate over-the-top I like to

start at the front end animals right

where the neck start to come into the

shoulders we look at the width across

the top of the shoulder how that width

carries down through the rack over the

loin and then coming back into the hip

ideally we want the animal to be fairly

similar and width across the top of its

shoulder as it is coming into the back

of its dock you're coming into the back

of his hip animals that really taper if

they're really narrow in the front and

taper out wider coming this way we would

like to see them wider if they're why

this is the shoulder and they kind of

taper coming back to the hip that's even

more of a problem when we're talking

about bond they can see this roundness

this arch and spring to the body an

animal that is why durak ross the top of

the trip has more of a curvature to its

rib shape is gonna have more volume as

opposed to an animal that it's flatter

in its rib shape narrower in this middle

section meaning they have less volume

this also the way place we can look for

condition and we're going to look at

some pictures here looking at condition

in lambs but the rounder they are so the

square one just like in market hogs the

square if they're really square up top

there's less fat cover over the top of

this muscle tissue if they are more

triangular so they kind of come to a

point the spine is sticking up is the

highest point of tipping the edge of the

spine is the highest point in their body

that means they don't have a lot of

muscle they probably don't have a lot of

condition they definitely don't have as

much muscle popping up on the top coming

up to this spine if they're really round

on their top shape that usually means

that they are carrying a lot more fat as

they start to deposit fat up in the top

along the edge of the spine a kind of a

rounded look it's supposed to a square

look over their top so if we're not if

we're just seeing lambs in Iraq or being

held and we're not allowed to handle

them and we're judging market lambs well

those places we can really evaluate

finishes by looking at the shape of this

top if it is very round and they're very

rounded out the doc up here and then

we'll talk about

the shoulder here in a minute that's a

sign that a lamb is carrying a lot of

condition and it's probably got too much

fat or less desirable amount of fat than

we prefer

looking at the front end animal can also

tell us some important things we can

also look at that width

once again we talk about the width to

the rear leg but looking at the width of

the front legs in the space here in the

chest floor at the bottom of the breast

tells us a lot about that body capacity

you know the animal is really Square and

wide open here at the bottom of it at

the bottom of his shoulder here at the

breast so that means it has a lot of

space there and what we call the four

rib the front part of the rib is really

big and open and that's a good thing

that means that most time that animals

need really big and wide up top so

there's more space for to put muscle on

over the top of that rack there's also

more room just for its internal organs

things like its heart its lungs and also

corresponds with the amount of space it

has for its its rooming in there and

that more space means they can eat more

they're simply gonna grow faster and

become bigger than one that is tighter

and more narrow in this internal organ

cavity up here in the front so what is

big and open you don't want to open

which I'm not open we're talking about

the width up here not talking about the

shoulder blades I'm going in the front

particularly and use is important thing

to look is the angle on how this front

end comes together if you're to open up

here to front the shoulder blade is

what's opened up not the chest floor is

opened up that's more of a structure

problem we'll see that when the animals

walk that they are to open in their

shoulder so we want that shoulder blade

nice and tight and laid against the rib

cage but we want to see that width down

here in the that four rib which is the

ribs that lie underneath the shoulder

blade and the size of that area

underneath the shoulder blade this is

also another place to look for the

finish on a lamb and we're going to

evaluate that in the front end of lamb

in two different places down here in the

breast of the lamb the more square and

angulation there is to the muscle shape

you can actually see the muscle

definition down in the breast the leaner

they are is they get fat or just like in

market skiers this breast here starts to

fill with fat and you get more of a

round and bulgy look down here to the

breast the other place particularly

lambs the really good way

evaluate finish there's a little groove

it comes down here to edge of their neck

where it comes into their shoulder

there's a little groove right here is

they don't start get fat or fills in you

can't see this groove that runs down the

neck of the lamb so they're closely

shorn and we see a nice grooves coming

down that land we know it's lean if that

neck is very full and you can't see that

groove running down the edge either edge

of the neck that lamb is putting on well

has carrying more condition that groove

is filled in with fat cover all right

we're compared to lambs I pulled up to

picture Sears we can kind of see some of

those things we're looking for we're

talking about being a fat lamb or a

leaner lamb we're gonna start here with

the with the fat lamb this lamb is

showing a lot of signs of fat so where

shall we look from the side we can see

this lamb is very big and deep and round

in this lower belly here because with a

youth that might be a good thing but

here in a weather this is just a lot of

waste down in here we're not we don't

really eat the belly right this is not

muscle that we eat down here this is

just gonna be thrown away this is full

of a lot of fat down here around the

internal organs or pushing it down um

okay so little bit hard to see in this

picture here there's a groove there's

really groove is on this lamps neck and

that is full this breast of the lamb I

hear we can see it's kind of pushed

forward it's very round uh through the

chest not just kind of sharp or square

angle right here that's because this

breast is full of fast this lamb is

caring a lot of fat we see this very

rounded shape up top right it's very

around we don't see swear this we don't

see very much muscle definition in the

shoulder it's very smooth like we watch

looking for fat in a market hog look

across the top of that blade same thing

in market lamb so you look over this

blade and see if we can see when they

walk we see more motion up here in the

shoulder blade moving can we see the

little groove up here to top or the top

of the shoulder blade comes over to the

top you know coming up the top of the

ribcage here this is smooth it's all

filled in if we look at this lamb for my

particularly around the dock here it is

very full but most like coming home

which was good thinking about compared

to judging steers market steers look for

those pawns of fat appear to tail head

this one here is the tail head has

filled in completely or the dock is

filled in completely in fact we don't

see the definition here in the dock like

we will in a leaner lamb and this being

a whether we can start to see fat down

here in the cod the cod area right here

is where it was castrated we started to

see fat deposits down here in the bottom

of the cod a leaner lamb we will not see

this so this lamb here is definitely

what we consider over condition is too

far beyond what we prefer for fat cover

so we're gonna go the other way

a land that's really not carrying enough

condition so we can compare and contrast

these two pictures right this lamb here

is very lean it needs some more time on

fee way we know that we can look at the

difference in the belly line to start

with this lamb really comes up in the

rear flank he's really tight and lean

here in his floor one third of his

ribbond belly we look over here at the

shoulder we see sharpness we see angles

this area we talk about right here in

the neck

what's he to dark lamb and it look more

in the front you can see bears right

here there's a groove it comes down his

shoulder that groove is very prominent

right here in his neck he's very sharp

over the top of his shoulder we can see

the top of the shoulder blade because

he's more of a peak up here at the top

of his shoulder he we can see more

angulation unless smoothness over his

shoulder they look round and bold over

his shoulder here he's got some less

muscle that land we're looking at

previously but lie that we saw another

man was fat cover over the top of this

muscle this one here we're looking at

we're actually seeing the bone and the

muscle under there looking over his dock

this is really particularly see this

lamb is really lean we can see this dock

here is very sharp we see its

indentation here that's where the dock

is coming down to the leg looking from

this angle we can see

the sharpness coming into the dock here

there's not any fat cover put over the

top of this portion of his at the end of

his spine here this lamb is railing we

don't see any fat in the cod tissue here

do so AM is quite the option that last

limb both these lamps have problems the

other land we looked at was over

condition this psyllium is too green he

needs more time on Phoebe would like to

see more condition on this land for him

to be at an optimal market finish all

right so we're gonna move on just a

little bit here so we judge a class of

market lambs

a lot of times they may be tied to a

fence they may be in Iraq held in Iraq

or they may be exhibited and held by an

exhibitor but they may not have a number

on them when you walk into a class of

market lambs and they are stationary and

they don't have a number on them when

you're standing behind the class looking

from left to right that's how you're

always gonna number the class number one

is always on the left

number four is always the farthest on

the right this is one of the few classes

most every other class we're gonna look

at most time they're gonna be numbered

if plans are in Iraq they may not be

numbered so when you walk up to the

class if you're standing behind them one

is on the far left floors always been

the far right so it's 1 2 3 4 going left

to right looking from the rear of the

class as we approach the animals here we

want to start to see the difference and

one of the keys for judging market lambs

and really all livestock is not to get

too close you can actually see more by

being further backed and you can be from

being right up on top of the animal

especially when you're wanting to

compare them to each other so we look at

this class of lambs here there's a thing

to stand out very very quickly here when

we look at it right we talked about

looking at base width how wide they

stand the ground we can see some

differences here in width of the between

your feet as they stand to ground you

can see differences appear and went

over the top of their hip as we look at

it here we can see some differences in

their rib shape how round they are on

the rib shape but you see differences on

how wide they are here right behind

their shoulder and we can see some

differences that there at the dock well

these are not shared particularly close

they're so short enough we can kind of

see some differences here in the dock

about a fat over the dock of these lambs

we're looking at it from the rear so we

can start to look and make some and

analyze these and start to see some of

those differences what we're looking at

them from here the key things look for

weights at the ground width through the

center portion of the leg from edge to

edge who is widest from here to this

edge of the leg who is the narrowest or

the flattest from this edge of the leg

to this edge of the leg also the other

thing we'll look at is are they where's

the widest point we look at it from the

rear where is the widest point we want

that widest point to be at the center

portion of the leg if the widest point

is up here at the top of the animal they

could be getting quite a bit they're

getting fat and or they're just really

flat muscled and narrow based they tend

to be narrow they wanting to taper as

they go down and lower to the ground so

we look at that width at the ground with

two the midpoint of the leg and the

width over the top of the hip across the

dock here so there's places we want to

start to evaluate the width of the


then we can also sometimes in Iraq it

can be harder to see that side view

you're gonna walk and move so you kind

of look at the 3/4 angle and kind of

start to see that side walk around front

look at those front legs but some of the

anyone and start to make decisions but

then one most time in market classes if

you're allowed to handle them you're

gonna use that handle time to handle

that lam to kind of back up and confirm

what you saw with your eyes so I'm going

to pull up a handling video here real

quick and walk through how to properly

handle a market lamp when you walk up to

them so let me see here close this one

down and share my other screen

only handle market lamb we want to do it

the same for every ammo handle we come

in we'll come in from behind them take

our hands run started right here behind

a shoulder I feel the Wits thickness the

fullness of the loin muscle over the top

of the racks right here behind the

shoulder blades I'm feeling with fingers

I feel right here behind shoulder blade

then we'll take my hand and we'll feel

that going progressively down to the

last grid when I reach the last Ramon

take both hands put fingertips in at the

last rib and measured a loin going back

to the hip we can do it this way do it

this way to feel the thickness you have

smaller hands from going your fingers

see the links the thickness of that loin

push in don't get down here I said I'll

go down here push in this does nothing

to here on the bell you wanna be on the

muscle fingertips pushed in here to the

edge of the last rib coming back all the

way to the hip to find the width the

links and the depth of that one they

also feel for condition we're gonna use

this parsha your central portion of the

ribs we're gonna gently use our fingers

and push against the ribs and rub back

and forth maybe down just a little bit

lower closer to the elbow down here and

we're gonna feel the mikage how it feels

like over the ribs right we want to feel

like the back of our hand if it feels

like this too thin it feels like this

too fat you want to feel like the back

of our hand

then we're gonna handle the leg this is

kind of an optional thing to handle the

legs some people don't do that please

use the visuals we're gonna handle like

you can use your hands come in on the

leg come back behind the leg make your

fingers touch and then use your thumb

around the front and measure the

distance between your thumbs the fish

it'll clear like what y'all want your


touching in the back with the most

support only hand the lamp is to fill

down the top the loin and the condition

on a market line then we do the same

move when coming to the next one right

come in here find it back to the

shoulder come down the top is coming

down top we're feeling the width of this

loin muscle over the top of the rib cage

there's some major difference it goes

squareness the fullness of thickness of

that muscle coming right out here and

over the top of the ribs finding that

last rib measure the line width feel the

condition come down measure the leg next

point come here at top feel that loin

also feel conditional a feeling on the

top I can also feel the condition in the

lamp some amount the freshness of that

lamb you feel how much that spine top of

the spine sticks above the muscle tissue

so we can feel some differences in these

lands we put our fingers in here and

feeling how far apart above the mostly

she that spine sticks the fatter though

I am and one muscle lamb has bless

you're gonna be able to feel that spine

sticking up above so we come down the

top find out last rib measure our loin

go to the condition over the ribs

measure the leg and then finally for our

last lamp same thing on the top of the

shoulder find that rack use our hands to

come down that top peel that spine in

there explain that last rib measure

measure measure right so when I handle

is left so we using the hand line just

confirm what we see with their eyes

that's where we're really confirming

what we feel with their eyes on this

limb when we handle this lamb this lamb

here handles with the widest top from

her top of a rack all the way to her

loin she has the biggest top in the

baldies lamb to handle

whereas this lamb here has the smallest

top it has the least amount of condition

she's the least fresh we can feel more

of that spine sticking up on the

slams right here down her top its

compared to everybody else in the class

so we are biggest loin right here and

our smallest line if we look at it

visually we can kind of see that how

much bigger tissue is over here over her

top coming back into her hip here how

much wider she is that translates to

what you feeling a handle










all right we're gonna move on to

breeding news here in just a second let

me let me make us make a stop here and

see if Anne has questions about judging

market lambs we're gonna recover some of

the ground we just cover a little bit

and we going to use some of those things

carryover we're talking about particular

talked about volume and structure quite

a bit here as we move into breeding news

but does anyone have any uh any

questions before we move into the

breeding use section about evaluating a



so you can turn on your audio if you

want to ask the question or you can put

it in the chat box either way


okay if not we will move on to our to

our breeding use so when we evaluate

breeding use our priorities of what's

most important changes for market lands

I think this is a pro area where people

young people who are just starting to

get into the livestock judging sometimes

can get tripped up they can tend to want

to judge a greeting you as you would a

market lamb

and that can sometimes really trip you

up because if you're not paying enough

attention to the structure of the animal

which is the most important thing when

we're looking for breeding sheep and

also for our weather damn class this is

a structural correctness of the females

that's at the top of the list here

whereas in the market lambs that's one

of the lower priorities is what the

structure the animal is and that can

really trip them up so it's very

important when we judge the class to

change our mindset when we go to

evaluate a breeding ewe class to really

look at that structure and we're gonna

talk about where to look for those

angles and look at that structure here

in just a second that's followed by

volume you can pack so listen so why is

structure important the structure just

like muscle was the most important part

of our class when we eat the lamb or

eating that muscle tissue

we need one prefer more of it than less

of it the structure is most important in

to breeding you because we want that you

to remain in the flock for a long period

of time to produce as many lambs as

possible when they have structural

problems that results in them and

several things either getting arthritis

as they get older therefore they don't

walk as well they get uncomfortable they

start losing body condition they don't

rebreathe they don't milk as much

because they're not grazing because

their feet hurt their legs hurt they do

hold up and you have to call them sooner

if you have to you know comparing having

to sell you at five years old because

she has structural problems and she is

now uncomfortable she can't keep her

weight she can't carry a pregnancy when

she's carrying twins she's laying down

time because her feet her hocks her hip


um and so she loses weight she doesn't

milk as well she raised in small lambs

having to call her at 5:00 for that

reason as opposed to calling her at 10

years of age for that reason is a huge

impact on the bottom line it takes 3

cycles and it takes 3 years of lambing

most the time for that you to finally

pay back what it took to grow her to a

year of age after 3 or 3 lambing rest of

that is profit up until 3 lambie's less

of that is profit if she you know she

doesn't lamb Toshi's 2 3 he just and you

have to color at 5 have you just broken

even if you can hold her another 5 years

do you start making money so that's why

structure is so important to understand

why structure is so important because

you want longevity in these animals and

that goes with volume a capacity to long

the capacity affects the profitability

and the longevity of the animal in two

different ways the first one is the

amount of space there is in the animal

for the rumen to sit animals that are

tight they don't have as much volume or

capacity have less room for the rumen to

sit inside they can eat less volume of

grass therefore they are going to in

general as very simply has more volume

be thinner and give less milk because

they're getting less energy into their

body the second one it probably almost

more importantly is then volume expands

regulated ability for that you to hold

her Lambs during pregnancy a you that

has low volume is going to have more


it'd be harder for her to carry a set of

twins they're gonna be born smaller

because they have less room to grow

smaller lambs tend to have be more

fragile and more likely to lose them in

the first couple of days of life if she

has a set of twins she does not have as

much volume those Lambs started to push

further onto her roomy capacity she can

eat lasts she's gonna be thinner when

she has those Lambs therefore she is

going to milk less those lands are gonna

grow less so this is why these two

things structure and volume capacity are

the most or the important traits because

they directly affect how long that you

can remain in the flock and how good of

a lamb or Lambs that she will continue

to raise that you want her to raise

every year for multiple years in a row

that's why we put emphasis structure and

volume in capacity so the next two are

femininity and muscle in breeding with

if the term says breeding ewes in the

class title we're going to put some more

emphasis on feminine and muscle muscle

it kind of falls to the bottom you want

some but then it's not the most

important we can bring muscle into the

offspring through the Rams that we breed

them to if it says whether dams then

we're gonna put more emphasis on muscle

because we really are putting that

emphasis we're not those females are

probably not gonna most if it's for them

to produce female more females for the

future they're kind of what we call a

terminal female that they're aimed at

not producing replacement females for

further flocks but they're pretty

emphasis about producing weathers and

Rams that are heavier muscled need them

to go into the show ring or to make Rams

to breed to other use so we're putting

more emphasis on the muscle it says

whether dams we're gonna put more

emphasis on the muscling of that animal

than into femininity the femininity side

femininity is a common

nation of traits that means they look

more female than male that's looking at

their head shape that is looking at

their body shape or talk about the

maternal wedge that's looking at

femininity also corresponds with utter

volume heat size also go into that how

well is she going to be as a female does

she look like a female as opposed to a

male femininity and muscling x' work

against each other a little bit or a

fair amount I should say it's hard for a

very muscle-bound lamb to look very

feminine they're always gonna look more

masculine ech is gonna be thicker around

their head is typically gonna be wider

they're just not gonna have a more

angular shape to their body so that's

the difference between femininity and

muscle and what emphasis we put it on

that determine is by the class name if

it says breeding use femininity is

important so you want to look like

females because that has corresponds to

the likelihood of them being good

breeding females and produce future you

lambs that are going to be good

productive females if we have it on

whether dams we're a bit more emphasis

on that muscling muscle traits as

opposed to femininity so those are those

two change depending on the title of the

class so we're looking at the structure

at the end we're gonna start with the

ground and we're gonna look at the

angles at the leg and knees and the

shoulders we can see that while the

animal is standing still and we can

evaluate that even better when the

animals on the move and I'm gonna show a

video here at the end of some these you

liam's walking back and forth and what

we're gonna look for but we're looking

at the angle of the pasture which is the

joint at the top of the hoof below the


want that to be fairly upright and

straight problems start to happen when

we get too weak in the passage we get

more angle in this joint

in young sheep particularly you know we

don't see as many problems we can we

they seem to walk okay

with weaker pasterns when they're young

well we put that you we make her 200

pounds in heavy bread with big lambs

inside of her these pastors really start

to hurt her she's putting more stress on

the joints and over a year she starts to

get arthritis in these joints and they

get very painful and she doesn't want to

walk she wants to sit down because her

pasterns hurt so bad for her to walk

around so weak pasterns

shorten the longevity of that you being

able to remain in the herd because they

get arthritis in this joint because the

angle here pulls too much on that tendon

the bones start to grind in each other

and they have pain as they get older

particularly when they're in pregnant

calf need is not as much of a problem

and sheep will see that it's more in

goats we can see buck knee that's when

there's an angle here the front leg they

are over on the knee the knee is out

here with the toe and not behind the toe

why didn't the front of the knee should

line with the front of the pasture not

with the outside edges of tutto buck

need the front edge of the knee is going

to line over the top of the hoof here

the tip of the hook once again this puts

extra pressure not only on the knee but

also puts extra pressure on the pasture

and these use will get more

uncomfortable when they're heavily bred

and as they get older back leg structure

affects how well the animal walks we

have two things the cracks we're going

to kind of an angle we're going to see a

straight angle from the back of the back

of the bone here going up from the hock

to the pasture is gonna be straight and

carrying straight up to the back of the

edge of the animal the two things we

look for here are sickle hawked and post

legged sickle hawked where they have too

much angle

too much set in the hawk is much more

acceptable in an animal than being post

legging when their post legging their to

straight this results and a lot more

pain being a little bit too much set to

the set to the hawk in general does not

result in as much long-term damage to

them to the to the joints as we see in

animals that are post like this can

sometimes cause problems they may want

to go down if you've got a big ram

trying to breed they can somebody get

down and push down post legged though

what happens there to straight there's

not enough padding in between these

joints and the up-and-down motion and a

pounding as they walk causes these

joints become stiff animals that are

post legged are short strided when we

walk watch them walk a correct

structured sheep or really any

construction correct animal a

four-legged animal which I'm a cattle

hogs goats this works for all of them

when they walk the back foot should

basically step in the hole that the

front foot left an animal that is sick

single hock will step up underneath to

themself and guys step over the whole

day left the easy way easier way to

admit sometimes notice sicko hawk is

they tend to Roach their top and drop

their hip because this angle here they

step up underneath themselves though

roadster top so they'll get a little

arch and the top of their back when they

walk and their hip will kind of drop

down that's a very common sign to look

for if you see with a animal kind of pop

up its top up and draw up its hip down

as it walks most likely she is sickle

hawked an animal at his post legged

tends to look even more uncomfortable in

a walk they tend to be shorter stride

they act walk a little choppy the front

the the leg does not hold the back leg

comes into is short of the front leg and

you'll see that act like they're stiff

they're stiff in their hip they kind of

usually tend to be shorter there's

something that come with Coach legged

being shorter in the

it tends to come with being post legged

being long and steep in the hip comes

with sickle hopped whereas coming short

in the hip tends to come with being post

lady those things kind of come together

they both correspond with each other but

an animal that is post leg it will be

restricted you watch your waka to be a

little choppy won't be as fluid you will

this Lego move faster and a shorter kind

of shorty chop walk as they walk around

and supposed to being a longer smoother

stride that you'll see in a correct

animal and really the best way to see

post legged and sickle hawked is to

watch them walk pass turn week pass

turns and buck knees you can see an

animal standing still it's harder

sometimes a seasick hawk and post legged

and animal this stationary they really

show that when they're on the move all

right we'll talk a little bit about

volume and capacity also now or move to

our walking video we're talking about

volume capacity one of the you know the

two best ways to evaluate this is from

starting off from the side we can see a

lot about the volume and capacity of

animal by just looking at the side the

depths as I said from the top of the

spine to the bottom of the belly the

widths there is in this area a more

shallow animal it's gonna be less a

deeper animal is gonna be more and

you're gonna see more of a rounded edge

down here at the bottom of the belly for

a really deep sided animal if they're

more straight it's more of a straight

line and particularly if the deepest

deeper part is at the chest floor going

up into the rear flank is kind of more

of a taper up than a taper down or a

taper back that is means there's less

volume we're talking about the maternal

wedge we're looking for an animal that

gets progressed so they're going on a

straight top-line but gets progressively

deeper from the chest floor going back

towards the rear flank that is more

ideal the line we do not

when they go from the chess floor going

up into the rear flank that's a sign of

an animal who does not have a lot of

depth of body then we look at him over

the top or from the rear we want to see

this roundness and arch to the ribs

shape if they are flatter in the rib

shape so we can really see in these few

pictures the difference in the shape of

the rib here right it comes out from the

spine it comes out wide before it curves

down but down here in the middle portion

it's still got a lot of curve to it

whereas this lamb here she comes out

from her spine with some curve but then

it kind of plunges mmm great down the

side so she's really more flat sided

this is less volume incapacity want to

see that big round rib shape also we're

gonna look at different parts of the rib

for that capacity we talked about the

maternal wedge we said we wanted to get

wider or deeper when the cat from the

side going from the chest floor back to

the rear flank maternal wedge also means

going from the front of the shoulder

coming back to the hip did they get

progressively wider so if we look at

this shoe over here on the left from her

shoulder coming back to her hip she gets

progressively wider as she comes back in

fact her widest portion right here might

actually be the center portion of a rib

that's competing with the front edge of

her hip here

being which is the widest but she gets

on her top line that she goes from here

to there

she's progressively wider if I can

really show this with a pencil real

quick here what I'm trying to show here

pin from this point right here coming

back to her hip she comes in hoops doing

a very straight line here she opens up

and she comes back into her hip where as

this shoe does not open up as much she's

more straighter

she's not as tapered in her shape from

her shoulder she's just about is just as

wide here in her shoulder as she is here

at the back edge of her lawn there's not

as much

difference in the amount of width from

here to there so she is flattering her

shape she's not as angular we call

angular in her design as this this you

is over here all right so we're talking

we're moving back to volume capacity I

want you all to look at this class and

put in the comment box for me um which

one of these use do you think has the

least depth of body which one thinks is

showing the least maternal wedge from

her chest floor going back to her rear

flank which one the tapers upward

instead of going down


alright looks like most you found it yes

female number four here tapers upwards

in her rear in her in her bottom and her

midline right she does not have that

depth of body look at number three which

was actually the name of course I guys

you know which is this deepest side a we

don't want deep aside right from her top

of her spine to the ball on her belly

has this deep sweep she drops from her

chest floor going back to her midpoint

to her belly button here for to her

navel from her chest floor to her navel

she drops down in her rib shape this is

the most I'm or ideal female rib shape

that we would like to see these use here

number one number two they have beasts

and they're more level they have some

drop particularly one drops a little bit

more going back to her navel then to

does to look at her sheet a little bit

more what we call flatter even this one

here we give them to the side we can see

that rib shape right we can see the

Bulge in the rib here and one right here

in this back section as opposed to two

two is flat or divers from the rear here

that two is flatter in her rib shape

then one is one's got more roundness

through her rib shape but the one that

has the most volume in capacity right

which comes in three dimensions right

which I my volume the capacity the depth

the width and the links threes not the

longest I give that to to do to the

longest body but three out is by far the

deepest and I think if we got behind you

I don't have a picture from behind if we

got behind her I feelings she is also

the widest you in the class and she's

not that much shorter in to making her

very far the highest volume you in this

class right

something else we can look at is the

shape of the shoulder we talked about

femi we want to look at how the neck and

shoulder and the shoulder blade lay in

on these use and this way it's a little

bit harder but we look at we're looking

at the angle here at the back of the

neck coming into the top of the shoulder

I really like one-to-one if I look at

one here I really want too much he's

very straight in her top she's very

level at her hip the carries all the way

up to the point of her shoulder that's

almost was straight it's a very straight

line there and it makes this nice sharp

90 degree angle but going straight up

she comes out the top of her shoulder

really nice in her neck right um whereas

we look at number four here she starts a

taper a little bit more in her hip she

got more that little slope right there

number three she's not as good number

three he's not as good in her shoulder

coming in to her neck as one right we're

never gonna find it's always a the truth

we're never gonna find perfect animal

they're always gonna be false so while

three is the biggest volume she's not

hot as good in her shoulder and her neck

the way this all blends together here up

front as one is so we look at the front

end of one looking out of the breast now

she really comes up nice and straight up

here in the front come out of the breast

going up to her jaw

whereas three wants they extend out a

little bit more get more of this rounded

shape if she were to stand naturally she

gonna hold her head more of a little bit

of angle a little bit what we call more

of a you neck right here her neck and

shoulder junction she's not as straight

and angular and they're not in her

shoulder and in her neck Junction as one

is so that's something we know we got to

to use here that are really good

qualities we got one we say it's a

higher volume view we got one that's a

little bit more feminine and extended

and correct in her neck and shoulder

angles so there's some things we look at

when looking at the side of an animal's

how this shoulder and neck kind of come

together and that comes in femininity

while this angulation and sweep to the

rib is feminine this shoulder and neck

Junction up in here and the length of

neck and how

shoulder lays back onto her ribcage is

also a sign of femininity we want to see

this this angulation for its angle of

the shoulder right here oops I want to

grab the pin here this angle to her

shoulder like that that's what we want

to see whereas this one right here she's

getting kind of flat more flat in her

angle of her shoulder we like to see

more slope to it this panniers got

really good slope well she's a little

more open cuz there look at it from the

front just point of her shoulder which

is right here is more open than this one

here lays in a little tighter so we're

kind of looking at the shape of the

shoulder and neck up here okay right

alright so going back to our little

group of used here we've been looking at

what's he looking at him from a breeding

you standpoint there are still things we

will look at that muscle but also that

hip the tip shape and width is very

important for judging reading use

because they have to land those lambs

have to come through this hip to come

out into the world right so what we're

looking for here in our hip shape is the

squareness of our hip right we have our

our hooks are up here which is the front

pelvis and then the pins are back here

and in this one here I scroll here our

pin bones are here and our hooks right

here then we mark here hooks here pin

bone is here and here

this one here is here there and there

and there so we look at them we want to

be really wide at the back edge of these

pin bones right the back of our Hill

because that's where the lamb has to

come out at

use it real start to taper more from

hooks two pins get shorter in their hips

if they get kind of shorter in their hip

or more tapered or angular in this hip

shape they can have more issues of

having lambs than ones that are wider

particularly at the pin we call about

the pin set at the back end of the

animal they are wide or depends that

that's a good thing one of the

indicators for how wide they are depend

set is how wide and square they stand at

the ground here this is you here in the

middle if we look she spans very square

her hocks are here or pointed straight

back this you here she is pointed just

the tick in if they are pointed their

hocks so she's a little bit we call cow

hopped she's not bad but she is a little

bit cow hawked and when they're hocks

start pointing in towards each other

that means that the hip is is pointing

is pulled in closer to the pins the

hooks are wider than the pins if they

stand square they are more square up

here in the top or their hip so that's

one way to evaluate the hip shape is by

looking at how they stand the ground or

if you want to see if their cow hawked

if they are tapered into their pant from

hooks the pins

more than likely they're also going to

be standing a little bit cow hock off

their rear leg it's or have more angular

22 stalks on me pointing in and has to

do with how they're shaped up here in

the top of their hip and use that are

just narrower and smaller in the top of

their hip or gonna stand narrower and

closer together at the ground those two

things correspond with each other so

when we're looking at replacement feels

it's why we want to see animals that

span wide the ground because they're

standing wide to ground that means they

are wide up here in the top of the and

wide in their hip so they're gonna be

able to Lamb easier so they stand

narrower at the ground they're gonna be

narrower in their hip and they're gonna

have more lambing problems all right I'm

gonna pull the video we're just about

done here for a day and we'll pull

this video and we're gonna walk to a

little bit I tried to shoot and some

parts of it are good so I'm they're kind

of running a little faster I want but

the easiest and the best way to evaluate

a breeding ewe is to watch him on the

walk you can see some things when

they're on the stop but you can really

see those same things and more when you

watch them as they as they're walking

and we're gonna pull up okay we're gonna

watch this a little bit and it's kind of

a long me it's about seven minutes long

and looks like here and I'm a stopping

it part of the way through but I want

you to all just watch I now have two

using them for it I put numbers on their

back just the watch and walk watch the

angles of their hip watch the angles

that they sally's step underneath

themselves with their legs when they

stop look at their widths have when they

naturally span the width they stand to

ground the angle that they sit with

their hold their head as it corresponds

for the top of their shoulder and their

back and at the front of their breasts

how those angles come together and see

if you can start a spot some of the


so some of the things I want you to

notice as you watch the huge walk the

you that spans the Y is the ground of

all of these use as we call the biggest

foot so that's the diameter of her bone

he's number four this is a you that buy

in this class we've all heard the

biggest bone and widest base view in the

class and that it's gonna correspond

with the amount of muscles yeah that

they are big bone they stand by the

ground in general they're gonna have

more muffle she this is where we were

handling video number four again she was

the widest over top of her rack and

carried out the widest through her wound

to her hip so she's the heaviest muscle

new in the class i really like this you

when she hold why she holds her head up

she's very up headed angle is very good

as it comes into the top of her shoulder

and she's one of the widest hip views in

the class the other really good you in

this class is number two here which is

i've call her the all-white you or she's

the bald-headed you should have as much

of a wolf cap or wool on her legs as the

other one but she is really big to the

center portion of her legs she stands

very wide at the ground she's a little

finer bone the diameter of her bone at

the cannon and in a rear leg there is

not as big she also wants to get a

little bit more structurally incorrect

as you watch her walk she won't wrote

her prop their comp kind of pops up here

in the middle just a little bit when she

walks let's get up underneath herself

just a little bit she spans sometimes

you'll see her she kind of roaches their

arches that top line a little bit when

she stands naturally now if someone were

to hold her head up and it actually

posed her she looks really good you can

hardly see that but in her natural walk

she's just a little bit off and she

doesn't come up is nice right here at

her shoulder and man you got a little

bit more of a you neck when she was pops

of she does not as smooth at his

eat right here at the back of her neck

and her shoulder right there she's a

little bit more open and her shoulder up

here in the front

um then then they'll say the for you is

so she just got structurally she's not

quite as good she's really big and round

ribs um she's very big hips

she's heavy muscle this is a really good

use she's just not quite as correct as

four is then we have to use better got

some more props and a few more problems

ah the one you which is the speckle face

view she's the one who has the dark

speckle face you she's really wide she

gets a little bit more often or hip if

you look at you see her hip breaks

freedom or doesn't fit as blend in as

smoothly to her body as these other two

in forded they kind of see it pops out a

little bit more it's really wide butts a

little bit shorter and when you watch

her walk cheap tends to get up

underneath she's actually just a little

bit sickle Hawk so she got more angle

and you'd prefer in her back leg she

stands the focus up underneath herself a

little bit when she walks so and they

mostly see that way she drops her hip

when she walks she's got a lot of when

she walks you get the most slope to her

hip she's still a very big ribbed you I

think she got plenty of wit but the

structurally she is not as good as

before in the two years the three you is

the is the you that's got build the most

problems in this class and mostly it's

in the volume she is by far the

shallowest and the flattest you in the

class who spans the Narrows to the

ground as you watch her come toward to

you as she stands there she spends her

feet closest together

she also tends to be a little bit more

pinched into her hip here she's smaller

in her hip pinches into those pins a

little bit more she just gets outclassed

from my volume and in productivity

standpoint she's got the least amount of

maternal wedge that we have in the class

she's the lightest muscled and it's the

narrowest in her chest floor the

shallows in her body

of others Lam so when I was about moving

those users there's a you walk in I find

there's a you the first move in that

class was to find the number three you

and put her at the bottom that was the

most logical thing she's the one that

has the least quality and the one that

kind of moves that way pretty quick I

think you need to find when you evaluate

his class the two and the four years

those are the good news and I think you

could talk those back and forth a little

bit I think there I mean there's some

different there's more muscle I think in

too and her leg she's really bold out of

her hip structurally she's just a little

bit more off she's got plenty of rib um

plenty of depth of body I just like the

angles a little bit more I like the

width and the bone a little bit more on

four but that's a closed pair of use and

that is a pair of you there are by far

better quality than there too which then

puts the number one you are sorry yeah

the number one you kind of in third

place that's just where she logically

fits he's not as good as two and four

she's old better than three she

logically comes in the third hole so

that's a key when evaluating she's kind

of or any class of livestock is to break

it down into the easiest decisions you

can find sometimes it might be a tough

animal it might be a bottom animal it

might be a pair of animals to go on the

top or a bottom but make that easy

decision find that easy thing to do and

then kind of start to worry and really

closely evaluate the closer animals in

this class you find the three-hitter to

the bottom one roles they are pretty

easy and these are the to use the two

and the ford racing to spend most of

your time evaluating the differences in

those two animals because they're the

ones that are most closely are the

hardest decision in the class in

deciding which factors you want to put

emphasis on okay

and that is what I have for you today if

anybody has any questions I'll be glad

to answer any questions right now you

can turn your microphone on and ask them

or you can type them in the box

any questions


if not I appreciate hope everyone learn

something today and I hope you stick

with livestock judging and that we will

see you in August at the state judging

contest y'all have a great day