Michael Wargo How to Learn 3D episode 1 -"Basic maneuvers"

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hi I'm Michael Wargo team pilot

precision aerobatics and today we're

going to learn how to learn

3d flying we're going to teach you a few

things that are different from the other

how to 3d videos I've done for instance

this time we're going to discuss nothing

but the principles involved in flying 3d

we're going to learn to think

differently about flying in general if

you've been a sport pilot this is a very

different experience than just boring

holes in the sky so let's first take a

little bit of a look at the airplanes

we're going to use if you look at this

airplane you're going to see enormous

control surfaces I mean they're

absolutely huge

the reason these surfaces are so huge is

because most of 3d is done in a stalled

configuration that means the plane is

not flying anymore it's being held up by

the prop predominantly a little

combination of both so when you're

flying that slowly it really takes a lot

of control surface to move the plane

even a little bit sometimes one of the

ways we're going to learn to think a

little differently is we're going to

learn to use the power of the motor the

propwash and how to manage the throttle

to make the plane do what you want we're

going to learn to harrier we're going to

learn how to fly a really controlled

roll controlling the plane at all access

through quarter turn half turn three

quarter turn and full is one of the most

important skill sets we can apply to 3d

flying now we're going to get right to

it we're going to start learning how to

fly 3d now the first thing we're going

to look at is the airplane this plane is

very specifically designed again with

very large surfaces a very powerful

motor and extremely light for this size

class this is literally the lightest

plane available today this is a

precision aerobatics addiction excel

it's filled with carbon fiber fusion and

and it is incredibly a

well-designed and suited to fly light

with a with very good wing loading and

again as you can see the flight surfaces

are very very large the next thing we're

going to talk about is something that

I've covered in great detail in other

videos and that's setting up the radio

and accommodating the flight controls

and everything for 3d I've got several

documents and support documents that are

going to go with this video will show

you where to find them on how to set up

your planes but I'm going to give you

one bit of information that is

absolutely critical if you look at this

control one and servo arm you're going

to see that full deflection allows this

to deflect fully this is a really

important part of setting up your


what is so critical is that when you go

to set up your end point adjustments or

your travel adjusts you adjust to travel

to deflect the flight surface as far as

its physical limits go not one click

more and possibly a couple of clicks

less and what that's going to do is it's

going to give you the proper resolution

on your servos and it also gives you the

maximum amount of throw the ideal

numbers are going to be between 130 and

150 percent for your end points where

you travel a just a rule of thumb is if

you get it deflected at 50 but fully at

under 100 percent you're not using

enough of the servos travel and that way

you're losing a lot of torque and

resolution conversely if you have too

short of a servo arm

it won't deflect it all the way you'll

only get this much and so if you're at

150% and you're only getting thirty five

degrees of throw for example

you need a length in the servo arm to

make sure you can maximize the amount of

throw in your model again there's a lot

of very detailed information in other

videos and in the support documents that

we're going to refer to in this video

everything is very well explained

there's one other aspect of setting up

your radio for 3d flight and that is

have proper use of expo normal airplanes

warbirds and things that a lot of people

are used to for sport flying really only

use about this much deflection at 100%

and it's not very much in the plane

loops and rolls and does everything it's

supposed to

with the 3d plane you have that much if

you're not using exponential in your

model there's going to be so much

movement with very very little stick

input that you're flying will look very

erratic and choppy as soon as you add

some expo what's going to happen is it's

going to make the first parts of this

travel very very soft on your stick

it'll be very normal and if we're at

maybe 65 or 70 percent expo what will

happen is as you pull the stick down a

little further once you reach here the

last couple of less maybe a quarter of

an inch or half an inch will deflect it

completely all the way so what that Expo

does is it basically makes it very

smooth in the center and as soon as you

get to the end points you'll be able to

access maximum travel all right we're

going to look at something right now

that a lot of sport pilots I don't use a

lot that is the rudder and 3d flying

because the plane is stalled we're not

making banking turns we're moving the

plane around with the rudder and that's

one really big use of the rudder that

normal normally pilots just aren't used


all right we're going to try and get

started flying and demonstrating pretty

quickly here this is my good friends

Hines Kaler he's another p18 pilot and

I'm sure you've seen them on some of

piays other videos we're going to have

him help me here and kind of

demonstrating what we're trying to show

you let's bring it back over here the

first mover we're going to teach is a

Harrier and the reason why we're going

to show you how to Harrier first is

because I personally believe it is

absolutely the most rudimentary skill

that you can have when you're trying to

fly 3d I'm going to be flying it and

hiring in just a second but what I want

to show you is basically what the plane

is doing what we're trying to do while

we're hiring so let's level the plane

off and if you watch the elevator I'm

going to pull up on the elevator and if

you can see how much control surface is

being deflected we're going to combine

that with a little bit of throttle and

what's going to keep the plane in the

air at that Harrier nice higher angle of

attack is going to be a perfect

combination of power and elevator so in

a normal Harrier configuration there's

about how much elevator you're going to

have to keep that angle of attack and

the power of course will depend on your

wind direction and whether you're flying

into it or away from it or things like

that but you're going to see it's going

to be changing all the time we're going

to be constantly adjusting the more I

pull the more the plane is going to tip

up a really big piece of information

here when I told you we're going to help

you to think differently is the elevator

is no longer than make it go up control

surface the elevator is simply going to

control this it's going to control the

angle of attack so obviously if you're

flying fast enough it'll make the plane

go up but in a stall configuration this

is what's going to make you hold the

nose higher or if you really slam it it

will tip you up into a hover and as you

release it you'll go down

this is again it's it's it's a different

way of thinking about flying because the

elevator now is going to be your it's a

pitch control as it always was but it's

literally going to be doing it almost in

one place even though it's going to be

flying forward a little bit it's just

not flying in a traditional sense the

next big thing here is going to be

throttle management we're going to

discuss throttle management in great

detail after I start showing you what

the Harrier looks like but one thing I

want to do before we actually go up and

do a Harrier is I'm going to show you

what I feel is the best way to practice

it and learn how to do it the first

thing I'm going to show you is I'm going

to give you a little visual

demonstration of the flight surfaces

here and then I'm going to actually

demonstrate it in flight but the best

way to enter into it is just go up very

high and once you're up very high you're

going to be kind of vertical what I want

you to do is just cut the throttle

completely and then we're going to add

full elevator and what's going to happen

is the plane will kind of level itself

off like this and then as soon as you

see that leveling off I want you to add

just a bit of throttle and that little

throttle is going to enable it to just

kind of fall straight down like a like a

pancake now as the plane is falling what

I want you to do is gradually gradually

add more and more and more throttle

until the plane starts to stop in the

air and pitch up when the plane starts

to pitch up you either release a little

bit of the throttle or of course you're

going to start having to release a

little bit yet the elevator or the plane

is going to you know continue to pitch

up on its axis once you've stopped the

aircraft you're now going to be in a

place where you're learning to stop the

descent with throttle and you're using

throttle to control your altitude now

and throttle controlling altitude is one

of the biggest 3d secrets let's show you

how it works

okay what we're going to try and do here

is we're going to show you how to enter

into a Harrier we're going to go up high

because we want to be able to use that

altitude for practice so we're just

going to let it flop around I'm adding

100% elevator and right now the plane is

just free-falling with full elevator I'm

steering it around a little bit with the

rudder now I'm gonna start adding some

throttle and as I'm adding more and more

and more the plane is stopping now as

its stopping you can see it's rotating

so I release the elevator a little bit

and now I am doing a harrier now I'm

going to fly it in close and we're going

to try and zoom in on it

to see exactly what's going on with the

surfaces now can you hear the throttle

and you see the flight surfaces

I don't have much elevator and I'm

controlling its altitude exclusively

with the throttle right now now you can

flex the throttle a lot if you can hear

what I'm doing here and it's working

just fine or I can do my best to just

lock that throttle in see right now I've

got a perfect combination of the two and

I'm barely moving the flight surfaces

turning a little bit with the rudder

let's try this one more time we're going

to go up high we're going to push the

nose over let it flatten out and now I

added full elevator and it's just

falling you can see the propeller is not

even turning I'm going to turn around I

have to add a little power to turn right

or only turn and this manoeuvre is just

the basics behind almost all of 3d

whether you're doing rolling Harriers or

inverted Harriers or anything like that

it all happens from this ability to fly

stalled if I cut the throttle the plane

will fall like a brick but you can see

using the throttle how easily we control

the plane's altitude I'm very

comfortably holding it just a couple

inches off the ground and that's because

I'm very familiar with how much throttle

to add and when to stop adding throttle

and you can see I'm just training with

the rudder look left

I will make a little right turn right

if any of you want to get just a little

bit fancier my favorite way to actually

enter this this descending Harrier or an

elevator which is what it's actually

called is to rotate and then just pull

100% so it makes a little flip down to

it so it looks a bit more elegant and


these planes look so good in an elevator

because it just Falls straight towards

the ground and as soon as you're ready

we're just going to add a little

throttle and we're going to arrest the


all it takes is a little practice and a

lot of confidence for those of you who

are getting a little better at 3d I'm

going to show you this little maneuver

again that little flip into the elevator

a little bit lower and see how nice and

elegant it looks see that looks like a

really nice 3d maneuver and it was the

same thing I just started practicing it

up a little higher right now you should

be able to clearly hear how much I'm

using the throttle here and our next

subject for discussion is going to be

throttle control