Benjamin Franklin apparently said.
"Tell me and I forget."
"Teach me and I remember."
"Involve me and I learn."
But what do we REALLY know about
effective learning hundred years later?
Many respected economists and educators
from the world's leading universities
researched this topic.
They discovered that many things don’t matter,
such as classroom size, new technology,
or fancy uniforms.
Their evidence suggests that the secret to thriving students
are amazing teachers.
Here's what they have learned.
First we have to acknowledge that teaching
is a highly complex skill.
It involves a deep understanding of the subject matter
and the ability to explain complex
issues in simple ways.
But it also requires an understanding of psychology,
pedagogy, as well as a wide range of management
skills in order to get the student's first
quiet and then excited.
Rob Coe, Professor at Durham University
reported that many widely used methods don’t work:
for example grouping students by ability,
giving unearned praise,
or the idea that students can discover complex
concepts by themselves.
Instead, master instructors have high exceptions
and maximize the lesson time.
But most importantly,
they combine high quality instruction
with pedagogical content knowledge.
They don’t teach a subject,
they teach their students
how to learn it for themselves.
In order to get it right,
we have to treat and train teachers like brain surgeons.
After all they also operate on human brains.
Like aspiring doctors,
they are best trained in the field
where they receive professional
feedback when they made mistakes.
Effective schools of education therefore,
train teaching like a craft,
rather than an abstract science.
At Sposato, a Graduate School of Education known
for creating effective teachers,
students spend a lot of their time
tutoring or assisting professionals.
Teachers who are already in the classroom,
need regular professional feedback on the job.
A vast study by Roland Fryer from Harvard
found that teachers who receive
precise instructions together with specific regular
feedback from a lead teacher,
will improve the most.
Other good ideas to improve teachers
are to ask the students for feedback
or to record lessons on video
and let the teachers watch themselves.
Doug Lemov, founder of UnCommon Schools
and author of Teach Like A Champion,
identified many methods that great teachers use:
they greet each student
at the door so students feel welcomed
and acknowledged of their existence.
Later they use a strong voice
and don’t stop talking
until they have everyone’s attention.
Plus, they teach for mastery learning
to ensure students get it 100%
right before they proceed.
But maybe most importantly,
great teachers first get their students excited
and then keep their attention through story-telling
and engaging activities that sparks their imaginations.
A paper published by Stanford in 2009
showed that leadership makes a big difference too.
At low performing schools,
principals hardly ever show up in the classrooms,
but instead spend most of their time on administration,
documents or finance.
Schools with better students,
have principals that get out of their office
and spend a lot of time in the classrooms,
supervising and developing the teachers.
Together, they can make a big different
in their students life
Economist Raj Chetty and his team,
analyzed the data of 2.5 million US students
and 18 million test results.
He thinks that instructors
who are good at teaching to the test,
have a big impact.
On average, having such a teacher for just ONE year,
raises the students test scores
and cumulative lifetime income by 14,500 - in 2011 dollars.
On early childhood education,
he has another hypothesis:
Great kindergarten teachers
help to develop social skills,
discipline and character.
Their impact does not improve test scores
during the school years,
but surprisingly reemerges years later,
when their former students apply those skills
to advance in their careers
and find meaningful and well-paying jobs.
Eric Hanushek, Professor at Stanford University,
computed how much good teachers really matter.
He found out that top teachers get students to learn
50% more each year than an average instructor.
Poorly trained ones, just half of the average.
That means that 10 years at school
can either result in 15 years of actual learning
or just a mere 5 years.
This is a massive difference
that mainly hurts children from low-income families
who can't afford extra classes
or changing to a better school.
American novelist Gail Godwin once wrote:
"good teaching is one-fourth preparation"
"and three-fourths pure theatre."
To see a great actors in action
watch Michael Sandel from Harvard teach Law,
Robert Sapolsky from Stanford teach Behavioral Biology,
Walter Michel from MIT teach Physics
or Mr. Hester managing a classroom of teenagers.
Links are in the description below
and other great instructors in our channel playlists.
Now please share YOUR favorite teachers
in the comments below!