How to Build An Effective Skincare Routine for Clear Skin: for ALL Skin Types

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Hey guys, welcome back. It's Rowena, (and) it's Felicia.

With the thousands of product, tips and routines we see out there

it can get a little confusing.

What are the actual steps we need and which ones are extra?

The goal of any skincare routine is to give you the essential building blocks

to make sure your skin is functioning healthily and at its best

another second goal is that it should be

complementing and helping you fix any issues that can pop up from time to time

or at different stages of your life.

From things like preventing breakouts, healing hyperpigmentation,

soothing inflammations or rashes, all of which are skin conditions and these can change daily.

Skincare and beauty routines are an opportunity to notice external changes of our skin

because we know a lot of it also has to do with the inside.

And like with all good things we have to start with a good foundation and have the basics down

so then we can start changing things up,

swapping out and trying new products in the right way.

Otherwise, we can easily get super overwhelmed with everything that's out there

and it could end up in a complete mess.

AKA everything that we just mentioned: breakouts and rashes.

So today we're going to go over

what a healthy skin barrier is and why it's important,

the four core products in a basic skincare routine,

no matter what age or skin type you are,

the products that are outside the essentials but can be introduced into

an intermediate and more advanced skincare regimen

and debunk a major myth when it comes to using products

and then how to tell when to switch up your routine and why.

Before we jump into the basics of building a foolproof skincare routine,

let's first talk about skin barrier.

Healthy skin barrier

The reason why we slather anything on our face

is to maintain and build a strong protective barrier between us and the outside world.

Our skin barrier is the outermost layer of our skin also known as the stratum corneum

Because our skin has three main layers and starting from the bottom is the hypodermis

which is the deepest of cutaneous tissue made of fat and tissue and then

there's dermis which is where the connective tissue,

oil glands, hair follicles, sweat glands and all of those are

and then the top is the

epidermis which is the top layer of skin that acts as a

waterproof shield between us and the outside world

and each layer has an important function in providing us with healthy skin.

But for today, we're just gonna be focusing on the epidermis.

The top of this layer is the stratum corneum and helps prevent things like bacteria,

toxic chemicals, free radicals, ultraviolet light from the sun

and any external nasties from entering and harming

the deeper layers of the skin.

On top of that this layer is also helping to hold water from escaping from inside the body and

epidermis is made up of like stacks of flattened cells or cornea sites

and each has a thick coating of fat

which is also known as lipids that surrounds it.

Kind of like a brick wall that forms to keep precious water inside so that the skin stays firm and hydrated and

therefore we won't get wrinkles.

When this is functioning well and healthy the skin is hydrated, plump and firm.

But when it breaks down overall, skin health goes down with it

So the key is a healthy radiant skin

really is keeping the skin barrier or epidermis happy.

And when the skin barrier gets weak and the skin starts losing water and starts drying out,

it's like the brick wall starts to crumble

Humpty Dumpty falls off

and this is when your skin can show up as inflamed and dehydrated and flaky on the outside and

breakouts can occur because the barrier is compromised

and bacteria is able to get inside and then there's things

like premature aging to the skin because of dryness

as well as triggering existing skin conditions like eczema and rosacea.

So that's the skin barrier.

Now we know why we even need to use all of these products because it is to help restore moisture

to protect and deliver a source of hydration into the skin,

to keep it functioning strong and healthy.

The Basics:

Think of your skincare routine as consisting four main steps.

The first is cleansing: washing your face,

then it's toning, hydrating

which is balancing the skin

then comes moisturising or hydrating

and softening the skin,

and sunscreen, to protect and to prevent.

So you might be thinking what about

serums or eye creams or oils?

Well we'll explain those in just a bit.

But before we just mentioned, are the most important step in any basic skincare routine

whether you're 15 or over 60.

Okay so first starting off with cleanser.

We have talked about this in actually every like

skincare basics video

but will just recap because it's super important.

All these steps, cleansing is the first step in getting rid of

things like dirt, oil, dead skin that's lying on top of our

skin and these nasties can easily find their way into our pores

clog them and produce breakouts

which is why cleansing is so important for everyone.

The difference for each person then comes down to how often you wash your face and

what cleansers you're using.

For some dry skin types, cleansing by just using a cotton pad and

micellar water is enough for the morning and then

using a proper cleanser at night to really cleanse off all

nasties and germs from the day.

Dry skin types want to stick to milk, gel or cream cleansers

as they're milder and won't disrupt the skin barrier by stripping too many natural oils from the face

and for oily skin types

you can use cleansers with things like salicylic acid

because it's a really gentle way to make sure your skin doesn't get too oily and

keeps your skin in check

and when you wash your face try to

cleanse it for about two minutes so that the ingredients can really seep into the pores and

really like do its job because if it's too quick it's kind of

like redundant, it's like splash on our face.

And always use gentle circular motions in each section.

So like cheek, forehead, nose.

I went home and saw my sister wash her face

and she's like, literally like this.

and I'm like shocked.

It's like my dad. Oh, yeah like a man!

Oh my gosh, like not okay.

You're like tugging at your skin.

So I like using cleansing oils before the actual cleanser

to just get rid of all the makeup because double cleansing is when you

first use an oil-based product to melt away makeup

and oil attracts oils so things like foundation will glide off easily.

And then once that's off, you can go into your

water-based cleansers which then takes off the rest of the debris.

It's super important that you thoroughly wash at night

even if you don't wear makeup because even

the moisturizers and sunscreens on your face mix with dirt

and just

environmental pollutants and things in the air

It will cause breakouts on your skin

So you want to make sure it's clean before putting your face on your pillow

So our all-time favorite cleansers that have stood the test of time

that we use throughout the year are the

Krave Matcha Hemp Cleanser,

Indie Lee's Purifying Face Wash,

The Drunk Elephant Jelly Cleanser,

La Roche-Posay BHA Cleanser,

and the 9 Wishes Rice Cleanser with gentle micro exfoliation beads.

Don't feel like we talked about all of these a lot already


But actually the Indie Lee is a newer one to our addition

and the consistency is so similar to the Krave Matcha Hemp.

It's like jelly. It's not as um -

I feel like Krave if you go like this

It's a bit sticky like goopy, tackier.

The Indie Lee isn't like that.

But the feeling of it, it's amazing!

It's like a wet cloud on your face after you start.

It actually made me so excited to clean my face in the morning.

Wake up! I get to cleanse my face!

Thank you Indie!

So that one is actually really good and it's good for like all skin types,

good for day and night,

It's so gentle, it smells really good.

And then with the 9 Wishes Rice Exfoliation one like

the micro rice bran beads are actually so gentle as well

So you can also use that every day and it's a great physical exfoliant.

And then with the La Roche-Posay,

This is also a newer addition for me.

It was $15 and it's probably one of the best drugstore BHA cleansers

that I've ever tried.

It's also the same as like the Drunk Elephant consistency and texture.

it's clear, it's not jelly-like but it's gel

so it's a little bit more runny and

You can use this morning and night, every single day

So even though it's got 2% BHA, it's gentle enough.

For oily skin people, definitely stay away from it.

But for like combo oily (skin type), it's super good.

Now moving on to Toners and Hydrators.

The first step to a truly glowing and clear complexion is

hydration, right?

That doesn't only apply to people with dry skin.

It also applies for all skin.

We all need hydration and like we mentioned just before

our bodies and each layer of our skin needs water to function.

Hydrating products like toners and hydrators are

products designed to increase the water content

the majority of toners are water-based liquids

made up of specific active ingredients like

humectants including plant extracts as well as

essential oils, so

humectants have the ability to attract water from its

surroundings through absorption or adsorption

and just to nerd out a little about these two terms

absorption and adsorption are slightly different.

So, absorption is the process when a substance passes through and dissolves throughout it

So like if what I went into your hair, it actually goes into your hair and dissolves within it

Absorption is when the atom or the molecules are attracted and attached to the surface of the material

So humectants on the skin and the hair can do both


Well, that's what it means to like find water to the skin

But in fact,

humectants like hyaluronic acid work best in

wet climates where there is a lot of moisture in the air

like when it's humid or rainy.

Otherwise it can actually draw moisture up from your own skin,

which is not as effective.

Humectants can function within a moisturizer formula,

but depending on the skins needs,

will not supply the skin with a sufficient amount of hydration.

Like for her, if she just uses a

moisturizer and like nothing else,

it's like too dry. It's like it doesn't do anything.

It needs like a toner as well.

and we say this because you might be thinking

Oh, my moisturizer has hydrating ingredients and it's moisturizing enough already

But these ingredients in your moisturizer

Are not always able to penetrate as deeply

because the molecular size of these toners and serums tend to be a lot smaller

Compared to moisturizers that are bigger.

If you have dry skin and are only using a moisturizer,

chances are you are feeling the need to apply it multiple

times throughout the day.

Where are my dry skin girls at?

And I think this is a mistake - Not you!

No, definitely not me.

Like people who are younger who are just getting into skincare,

they can also maybe fall into this if it's like really dry skin,

but only using like a really light moisturizer

So long story short,

because toners and hydrators are made up of mostly water

they should sink almost instantly into the skin and

remember to apply hydrators or toners first

otherwise, there'll be nothing for your moisturizer to trap in later.

So the ones I've been using are the Tatcha essence

as well as the Ling skincare hydrator,

and I've been

loving the Laneige cream skin refiner.

It is magic.

So these three products are just very hydrating and nourishing for the skin.

Now the third step is moisturiser.

And we're probably going to glaze over this because we already did like two videos about it

But this is one of the core products that everyone should have in any skincare routine.

So take it away, moisturizer.

A moisturizer's main responsibility is to reduce trans epidermal water loss

by forming a layer over the skin surface

Moisturizers are able to reduce the risk of evaporation of

existing moisture throughout the day.

Healthy normal skin is able to produce

lipid cells and these cells trigger the skin's natural

ability to protect itself from moisture loss

which communicates to our sebaceous glands to produce more oil or sebum.

Those with a disrupted lipid barrier often

suffer from dry skin conditions as

the skin is unable to coat the skin surface with the

appropriate amount of sebum

causing a loss of hydration.

So a moisturiser should help to correct the

lipid barrier so that the skin is able to regain healthy moisture balance

and the key word here is


as these products are only part of a solution

and it's not a

fix-all to every skin condition on their own

but the products that we've been liking for moisturizing is

the Differin Oil Control moisturizer with sunscreen for acne prone skin.

I've been loving the First Aid Beauty's Ultra Repair Face Cream

and for another drugstore alternative is the CeraVe moisturizing lotion.

So with the Differin one, I really love it because it does have sunscreen as well,

but it's not greasy and white.

It's also really lightweight and it also helps to mattify the face

So one day I kind of like tested this on the first day and

I asked one of our co-workers:

Does my face look different?

She's like it's not as greasy because about 11 o'clock in the morning

it'll be like greasy already,

but this really does help control oils.

And for the First Aid Beauty,

it's like a very deeply hydrating moisturizer

that's just like no frills no fragrance,

nothing crazy added in.

It just does what it's supposed to do

and First Aid Beauty is also really good for sensitive skin.

So now that we've hydrated our skin and

we've trapped in all that nice hydration and moisturization,

the next step is to protect it all.

So sunscreens!

Sunscreens are essential for any skin care routine

It's one of the most effective ways if not the most effective way

to keep your skin looking youthful

because most of the premature wrinkling fine lines and pigmentation

happened because our skin is exposed to sun without being protected.

And you might not think much of sunscreen if you're still younger,

you know you think you have youth on your side

or if you like that tanned skin look,

this will catch up with you because your skin won't be able to bounce back as you get older

And this is like what I face, so things like

freckles, acne marks, hyperpigmentation.

It will just take longer for those to fade.

Also, ultraviolet light directly attacks the collagen and

elastin in the dermis layer,

and this is the essential protein in our skin that makes it

firm and bouncy and youthful.

So sunscreen, sunscreen, sunscreen!

Plus, there are so many different types of really great non greasy sunscreens now.

It's not like this white film that lifesavers used to use.

So sunscreens we've been loving are the

Krave Beet The Sun,

The COSRX Aloe Soothing Sun Cream.

So all these are Korean sunscreens.

Something about the Koreans and their formulation.

I'm a big fan.

Yeah, it's just really lightweight,

silky but protects,

and also really affordable.

Now that we've covered the basics,

the foundation of skincare that literally everyone and

their mother needs like we all - and their father,

brother, sister, any siblings, grandparents,

we all need.

Let's move up a tear to the products

we can add into our routine as supplements.

Like once you've figured out your foundation,

what works, these are the ones you can start playing around with.

For us personally, serums are a part of our basics routine because

serums deliver a potent amount of active ingredients

to the skin and it's like a complete boost of hydration after the toner.

No matter which serum you use it will be hydrating as well as other benefits like

brightening with Vitamin C

and normally comes as serums,

it helps fade acne marks.

There's overall hydration boost and it helps control oils with ingredients like salicylic acid.

Also a skincare routine is like any other routine you have in life

whether it's like exercise routine,

eating or food routine, whatever it is,

the good things only come when you give them enough time and patience.

So if you're introducing or trying a new product

we can't just say it's not working after using a like once or twice

or if you don't see immediate results.

A lot of the products will take at least like two to four weeks for you to actually see any difference

even including things like Vitamin C and especially Retinol

and things that take a little bit longer to work and

check out our serums video if you guys want to find out more because we go in detail in depth

about everything about serums.

Moving on to eye treatments.

So with eye treatments, we have an entire video dedicated to that as well.

Telling you guys things like puffiness and dark circles.

Why are they here? How to get rid of them?

Can we get rid of them?

It's mostly dependent on the internal functioning of our body and less about what we're actually

applying onto our eyes and onto our face.

So eye creams aren't pivotal, but we know a lot of people enjoy them

like I also still enjoy using them

just keep in mind that you can just use a very simple

moisturizer for your face

and just make sure you get that under eye area as well

and that will be more than enough to hydrate it.

Just don't use like chemical exfoliants under there.

I did for a while.

Yeah, and we're like shocked.

Felicia was shocked.

Yeah, (keep it) simple, like ceramides

You know any drugstore simple moisturizer is good.

Night creams

Our body goes into repair mode at night to restore any damages while we're sleeping

and we also lose a lot of hydration as we (sleep).

Night creams are usually thicker and richer

because we lose a lot of hydration during the night when we're sleeping

so if it's not locked in, this is when we can wake up with dry and dehydrated skin.

And the thing is, you don't necessarily need to go out and buy a night cream

I know there's a lot of packaged moisturizers that say like night cream (or) sleeping masks.

Well sleeping masks also can be used during the day, right?

Oh, just any pamper session.

It's more about using a moisturizer

that's a little thicker but it won't block your pores.

And this could be the same as your day cream.

So I always use day creams at night as well .



When it comes to exfoliants or exfoliating,

there's physical and there's chemical.

We have another video dedicated entirely to that

explaining what the difference is.

So for a more in-depth explanation, make sure you watch that one


and I think when it comes to like chemical exfoliation,

a lot of people are very interested about

but they're very confused about as well.

As a general rule, just avoid -

In terms of physical exfoliators,

avoid harsh granules and scrubs

because this can really be harmful to the skin and instead

opt for, even though it doesn't sound more gentle,

a gentle chemical exfoliant

like fruit enzymes which are AHAs that gently helped to shed away the like glue and oils

and also dead skin that bind together and seep into the pores.

AHAs and BHAs are in a lot of skincare products from

toners, serums, moisturisers and even masks.

So if you're just starting out,

we recommend starting from maybe a toner with AHAs or BHAs,

look for a very small percentage

and once your skin gets used to it, you can build up the percentages

and your skin will naturally adapt.

So always the lowest the better like 1% or even under 1%

and then slowly work your way up.

That is what the intermediate kind of additions

that you can add slowly into your basic routine,

and now we're at the top tier kind of like the extra frills,

the tip of the triangle.


So these include face mask, at-home-peels, retinols,

and like tools and gadgets.

With these you definitely don't need them in your basic skincare routine because it's nice to have

it's kind of like pampering or like a luxury.

Face masks are essentially serums applied to the face with a cotton sheet,

and peels are exfoliants,

and retinols,

you only need it from like 25 onwards

and any tools are an extra addition to kind of like how you apply it

so that it helps boost.

You can definitely look into these once you figure out the basics

and then you'll know how and when to incorporate these

So for tools, we've been using the Foreo,

there's Clarisonic,

there's Vanity Planet,

there's the Jade rollers,

there's even those like charcoal sponges that you can use -

the konjac (sponge)

They're just there to like help and aid in application of things like

cleansers and stuff like that which are definitely helpful,

but it's not necessary.

So now that we've kind of summed up like the basics,

the additions, and then the like nice little frills,

so that leaves us on to the next question. Which is probably:

How do I know when to change it up?

Here I want to first mention a skincare myth

your skin doesn't get used to a product and stop working.

But rather it's that your skin and your body and the environments are constantly changing

This will make your skin condition change during different times as well.

It might be getting colder

and so your skin needs more hydration

or your hormones might be making your skin act up

and so your skin might be oiler than normal

which means the product that you've been using normally

will also need to change, to adapt to this.

Some other signs you may want to

change up your skincare routine are

if your skin is looking red and inflamed

your skin products are starting to sting when you haven't changed anything

skin is developing rashes or textured bumps.

So going off of that,

let's look at breakouts or bumpy skin.

When we say bumpy,

there are many types of bumps we could mean

but we're referring to closed comedones

and these come about for a variety of reasons.

But if there's like a sudden outbreak of them on your cheek or your chin or wherever it is

it could signal that something you're using has too much oil for your skin to handle,

and it could be from oily foundations or a

primer that you started using or

moisturizer or just something new that isn't fitting right in your routine.

This then is a sign to switch something up.

So two days ago. I woke up with a giant friend on my cheek

and I think I don't usually get things on my face in general

There's a big one on my cheek and five like or six little ones near

like when you see an actual pimple with pus on her face like

something went wrong

because like a big one that was filled.

And then?

So what was it? Did you introduce something new?

I always test products

I think I use Vitamin C with the Great Barrier Relief from Krave Beauty's new serum

I don't think anything in that would cause a reaction though

I also went swimming

so maybe the chlorine and it could be like really drying

and then for like me the other day,

I went in and spot treated with this like 'natural'

It had salicylic acid

But also like oat kernel and stuff

and I feel like thinking back every time I use this product

my whole face gets itchy and inflamed with like tiny little bumps and that happened again.

So these type of things are like an indication that your body is basically like repelling something

telling you that it's not working.

Maybe in the order that you're using it or is just like

something in the ingredients

or it could be your diet and your environmental factors.

There's one time, I think I had like a quarter of a can of SPAM

and then I broke out for like 2 weeks.

She was just like: "I want SPAM".

It was so good with like noodles.

It was like a healthy noodle tree.

Anyway, it had bok choy (a type of Chinese cabbage).

A great ingredient to deal with these sorts of breakouts is

BHA or salicylic acid

and salicylic acid is oil soluble and so is able to penetrate

deep into the pores and kill the bacteria that's causing the blockages

that lead to these things like

bumps and breakouts.

Or you can be hit with the drought and suddenly get dehydrated

and epically dry skin.

If you've been using the same products but realize that you're getting a little dry still

when once before these products used to work miracles,

it could be three things.

The first is the skin is growing into a new face,

the second is environmental or seasonal changes,

and the third is that the current products are over drying.

So with the first point, our skin goes through phases like from

when we're teenagers, hormones are more rampant

and so skin issues will typically be at its worst.

Then it levels out into your 20s and then between your 20s and 30s and onwards,

your skin will start to lose collagen

and also get drier.

So with all these changes in our skin and body,

your skin will also need to make changes to fit in.

And this is normally when you'll start adding and switching up your basics

start adding on those like extras and

intermediate products like retinols or heavier creams and chemical exfoliants.

When it comes to seasonal,

we normally have a summer routine and a winter routine

because we need added protection and moisture in the colder months

because we lose a lot of hydration through evaporation and

whereas in summer,

we need to switch to lighter creams like gels to cater to the fact that there's sweat and

humidity to factor in and

another reason why our skin can become overly dry

is because of the mix of products that we're using could be too over drying

which causes your skin barrier to crumble.

For example

If we load it up on AHAs and BHAs consecutively,

over a really long time to cure some sort of breakout problem,

it may have been helpful for the first few days to keep the breakouts in check.

But if you keep using it,

then it could potentially

dry it out too much.

When you feel that you're going to start breaking out or you're congested,

start by using the BHAs and AHAs and then after maybe about two or three days then you can

start to see that it's going down and going back to normal,

switch back into your normal more gentle products.

Sometimes you're just bored, feelings spendy spendy, watching too many skincare videos,

so we all get excited because we see something new at the store

or we hear about it from a friend

like raving about how awesome this bottle is.

Yeah, or binge-watch on too many skincare videos

and you just feel like trying something new.

Because at the end of the day,

it's all about experimenting and having fun with it, right?

Yes, and whatever it is

If you do end up getting one or two new products

and you want to start incorporating them into your skincare routine,

do it one at a time and this way if anything hits the fan

you'll know right away what it is.

I'm careful with what I use on my skin, too.

Like I make sure to read the ingredients and make sure things aren't too crazy

and I feel like there are higher risk changes

and then there's like low risk changes and

the higher risk ones are the products more within our daily skincare routine.

Like the toner, the moisturizer, the serum

because if you change up those too much and use something that your skin is like

completely new to and you haven't tried anything like that before,

it could easily end up like a mess on your face.

So no matter how

excited you might be to pop open a new product the safest way to try something new is to try things out

when you have a little bit of downtime,

you have nowhere to be and no one to see.

Just in case your skin does result in breakouts or a rash or whatever it is

at least you'll have the next few days to recover from that.

And then also during this time, stop using any chemical exfoliant

and just use plain and basic products in the basic foundation level

with no fragrance

because during this time your skin barrier is dying

and needs time to restore back to the normal state.

So that was our basic or ultimate guide to building a skincare routine

because we get a lot of questions about people who are just starting out with skincare

but also how to like incorporate new products or switch up products,

these are always a bit of a risk, but it's actually not too difficult once you know

which things to swap in and out and like find out

the reason of why things aren't working as much as they could be but also,

keep in mind that what works for one person does not work for another one.

So we have a video dedicated to every step of the skincare routine

from cleansers, all the way to oils and face masks.

But we thought for this video, we just get down to the basics of what we actually need in our routine.

Yeah, because a lot of you ask us: "I'm 15. What do I need in my skincare routine?"

Girl, you'll only need the basic.

That is what you need, everyone needs

and then hopefully now it makes a little bit more sense about how to switch them up or add

certain products in and when you actually need to

and how it kind of fits into the grand scheme of things so that we can

all make like better decisions hopefully,

and save a lot of money.

Yes, check out our other videos,

and we'll see you in the next one.